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Robert Todd Carroll

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theories, ̷

"̷"̶ , ""ǹ̿ ""ǹ صǰ ִ. ǹ̿ ̷ ϰų ϰų ϰų ׸/Ǵ ϱ , ̴. ǹ̿, ̷ ų̳ ̴. ڰ ƴ '̷'̶ , Ŀ ٰ ų̳ Ű ǹ̷ ̿Ѵ. , ȥ 迡 ̷...̶, Ű ϴ° ̷... ִ. 츮 ⿡ ǹ̿ ̷п ؼ ϱ Ѵ.

̷ Ͱ ƴ ̴. ڴ Ͱ ̴

̷

̷ ̰, ̰, ׸ ɷ ߰ ִ. ĵ ̷̳ ȭ, ̷̴. ̷ ڿ ɵ ī ߰ϴ Ϳ ִ.

̷, 踦 Ϸ ϴ õ̴. ̰, ڿ谡  ۿϴ° Ϸ õѴ. ̷, ̷п ǰ ڿ迡 ̳ ʸ ϴ ִ Ͱ̾߸ Ѵ. ̳ ؼ ̷ μ 󸶳 ϴ° Ȯ ؼ öڵ ڵ ̿ ǰ ϴ. (Kourany, 1997)

ƴ ̷

ƴ ̷, Ϸ ϴ õ, Ұϰ, ɷ ߰ ʴ. , ̵ ̷̳, ̵Ǫ ÷ ̷ ̰Ϳ شѴ.

̷

̷, ƴϰ ʴ. Ϻ ̷ ̻ ̷ â̳, , ̿ ؼ̴. ̷ó, â̳ ̳ ̿ . ̰͵ Ұ̰, ɷµ ߰ ʴ. ̷ δ ϰ ߰ ִ. , ü ̶ Ͼ , ü ü ü 2 ٿ ü ִٰ Ͼ . ֿ âְ ִٰ  Ͼ , ŷп ٺ ڱ . ̷е 츮 ˰ ִ ϰ ִ. ȥ̳ - ü ִ , ͵ ε ִ ̴. ׷, е ̿е ̴. , ʵ ǹ ִ ̿ؼ Ȯ . ֿ âֿ , â ͵ . , ̷ ڵ Ұϴ. ŷ̳ ŷ, ̳ ̿п, Ÿ Ÿ װ ߸̶ ִ . Դٰ а ŷ ġ ȿ ̿а ŷп ´ ̴.

Ϻ ̷п, ǰ ̷ ó ͵ ִ. ̷ ̷, ΰ ϱ ƴϰ ؾ ϴ° ϴ ̴.

̷

Ϲ, ƴ ̷, ϼ̳ ϰ( ̷ ϴ ռ)̳, 츮 迡 ؼ ˰ ִ ͵̳ ų ȴ.

ƴ ̷, װ ϰ ߰ ִٸ, 迡 ־ ִ װ ʴ´. ׸Ƿ, ƴ ̷ (dogmatic) ϵ ƴϴ. ̰͵ Ǿ ƴ϶, Ƿμ ޾Ƶ鿩.

̷ ̿, ƴ ̷ ̰͵ ̿ Ѵ. ,  ̷а ̴. ǿ ϰ ƴ ̷ . , ̷ ̷ ϴµ ̿ .

ǰ ̷

Ȯ ߿ ־, ̷ ݴ븻̴. , ̷п Ȯ Ϳ Ȯ ͱ ū ִ. , ̷ ٸ ٰų ؿ ū ִ. ,  ̷ ٸ ̷к ո ޾Ƶ鿩 ִ. , ո ̷ ϴ, ̶ ʴ´. , ̸ '' Ȯ ƴϴ.

ǿ, ִ Ҹ ԵǴ ƴ϶ ؼ ԵǾ ִ. ( : ̷ )  ̵ Ȯϰ ݹ Ұϴٰ ϸ ̵ ʴٴ Ÿ ̴. Ȯ ̵, δ ̴. ϰų ȮǼ ߱ϴ ƴϰ, ̻̳ ̴.

׷ , ̷ Һ ä ƴ϶ ϰ Ÿ ִ. ,  ٸ ƴ ̴.

 ̷ȭ, , , , Ⱒ, ü, ̷ȭ, ,.. ̴. 翡, ̷ а ´ٰ,  Ͼ( ̷п ʴ ο ߰ߵǰ), ̷ õǾ ħ ̷ κ Ȥ ٲپ ̴. 

ϰ ִ ̷, ̷ ƴϴ. γŰ ( : 'ΰ ' å ) ϴ , "ſ ΰ ̴....п  Ǵܵ ϰ ִ.... ̶ , 츮 츮 ִ° ؼ ϰ ִ" ϴ ؾ Ѵ. γŰ "ڿ ǥ ϳ 迡 Ȯ 縦 ϴ ̴. 20 ϳ, ǥ Ұϴٰ ̴(γŰ, 353)".

γŰ, Ŀ ΰ Ư ִٴ ظ, Ÿ . ״ "ΰ (Ascent of Man)" ڷ ؼ, ƿ콴 ִ ҿ ȭ͸ . , װ 鸸 ̳ ڳ, "ٶ " صǾ ҰǾ. ص ߿ γŰ ģô ־. γĽŰ ȸ , ߴ.

ΰ Ѿ, ܼ ڷ ٰ ֽϴ. װ Դϴ. Դϴ.  ּ. ƿ콴 ִ ҿ ҰԴϴ. ڰǾ Դϴ. 뷫 400 簡 ϴ. ׸ ̷ Ͼ ſ ƴմϴ. ſ Դϴ. ̰, ٰ Ͼ Դϴ. ̰, ŵ ϴ Դϴ. (374).

̰, ڴ ̴. ƴϰ, ڵ ƴϴ. Ϲ , ùٸ ̶ .  Ȯ ƴ϶ װ ƴϰ, ƴϸ, װ ٸ  ǰ߰ ϴٰ ϴ ̴. ̷ Ϲ ޾Ƶ鿩 ִ 濡  κδ, ̷ ִ .

̷а Ʈ

صǴ ٸ ϳ, ̷ ǰϰ ֱ ʿ ̰, 迡 ؼ ƹ͵ Ѵٴ ̴.  "Ʈ " ϸ, 谡  ˷ ڵ鿡  ̴ ΰ ˷ ̶ Ѵ. ̷ ܼ ȼǿ ʴ´. ׷, , ϳ̰, , Ű ٴ ٴ ǹϴ ƴϴ. 츮 ΰ Ѵٴ ٴ ǹϴ ƴϴ. ź Ϻ ڵ ߴ , 迡 ο . 츮, ̰ ߸, ̷ ݾ ݾ ϸ鼭 ߰ϰ ִ. Ž ϰ ̷ " Ϳ ʰ", " ظ Ÿµ ʴ" ϴ , ̳ ̳ ̷ ϰ ϰ ִ ̴.

ൿ ̷

̷ȭ ΰ ؼ ǰ ġ ʰ ִ. ü ൿ , ൿ ִ ϱ? öڳ, ȸ ɸ, ȸ, Ÿ о߿ ϰ ִ ̿, ǰ ũ ִ. ൿ, ڳ ĵ ó Ģ ȯ ִ ϱ? ൿ, ȯ ְų, Ģ Ϲ ִ ϱ? װ ϸ, ൿ ̷ȭ ִ. Ұϸ, ൿ 󸶳 ̶ ϴ, װ . 屸 Ⱑ Ģ ȯ ൿ ڿ迡 ϴ ٸ ͵ Ӱ ٺ ٸ ̷ȭ . , ൿ ٰ ص, ൿ ̳ ̷, ɸ, ȸ Ȥ ִ. ̷ ̰ Ƿ ̵ ƴϴ.

̺ ̷

̺ ̷ ̷̳ ̷а Բ ؾ ̷ ƴϰ, ̰͵ ̷̴. ̸ â ̺ ̷ ̷ ƴ϶ ̷̶ ׵ ̴. ̰͵ ſ ǰؼ ϸ, ϱ⵵ ٺ Ұϰ, ڴ ̷ ݹϴ Ÿ źϿ ޾Ƶ ʴ´. ̺ڴ ڱ ̳ Ǵ ¾ ٰ ſ , ̷ ǰ ¾ ٴ δ ƹ͵ ʴ´ٴ 𸣴 . , "Ƿκ ָϸ ִٰ ϴ κ ߷ص, Ƿ̴ٰ ϴ ȮǴ ƴϴ"(, 118). Ʊ ãƳٰ ص ̰ ׵ ʻ ̿ ̶ Ű ʴ´. 

õ ׸ : control study, creationism, dualism, empiricism, materialism, positivism, pseudoscience, and scientism.

б ڷ

W. I. B. Beveridge, The Art of Scientific Investigation (New York: Vintage Books, 1957).

Jacob Bronowski, The Ascent of Man (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1973).

Michael W. Friedlander, The Conduct of Science (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1972). 

Michael W. Friedlander, At the Fringes of Science (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1995).

Martin Gardner, Science: Good, Bad and Bogus (Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1981).

Giere, Ronald, Understanding Scientific Reasoning, 4th ed. (New York, Holt Rinehart, Winston: 1998).

Stephen Jay Gould, "Evolution as Fact and Theory," in Hen's Teeth and Horse's Toes (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1983).

Stephen Jay Gould, Ever Since Darwin (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1979).

Janet A. Kourany, Scientific Knowledge: Basic Issues in the Philosophy of Science,2nd ed. (Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1997).

Karl R. Popper, The Logic of Scientific Discovery (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1959).

Daisie and Michael Radner, Science and Unreason (Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1982).

Carl Sagan, Broca's Brain (New York: Random House, 1979).

Carl Sagan, The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark (New York: Random House, 1995).

Copyright 1999
Robert Todd Carroll

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