sd.gif (2133 bytes)
Robert Todd Carroll

 the truth is in here!
SkepDic.com

vertline.gif (1078 bytes)  

science*

, ϱ ü Ǵ, ռ Ǹ '̰ '̴. 츮,  Ư Ͼ,  ڸ , Ȥ 츮 ׷ Ÿ ϰ ϴ ̷ ־߸ ߴٰ Ѵ. ü ڿ ޾Ƶ ź ڿ ƴ϶ ڿ̶ ϰ ȴ.

κ Ǵ 輼迡 ü踦 ϱ⵵ Ѵ.

Ư ко, , , ȭ, , ׸ õе Ǿ ִ. ̰͵ ³ ǵȴ.

̴. ε鷹 ׸ ڸ ̿ؼ Ÿ AԷ Ű Ͱ ̴.

̰

' ' Ѱ ƴϴ. , ϰų κ ϰų ʿ ̳ ̶ ϴ κ ΰ 迡 ؼ ϴ Ͱ Եȴ. ٸ δ, ϰų ȹϰų ڷḦ µ ʿ ⸦ ϴ Ͱ ͵ ִ.

ο ٸ Ÿ ʴ´., ڰ ڷμ ִ , ٸ ڿ ־ Ѵ.   ΰ Ȥ ߴٰ ص, ٸ װ ϰ ִ ƴϴ. ٸ ڰ , װ ڰ ȹ̳ , , , Ȥ  ߸ ߴٴ Ű ȴ. 

ǵ ̷е

, ˷ (: νĿ ռ ̰ ڸ ˷ ִ)ʴٰ ϰ ִ. , п ߰ߵǾ߸ Ѵٰ ϰ ִ. ̰ ˰ ִٰ ϴ (̸ â ), Ŀ ؼ . ڿ Ϲݹ ϰ ڿ Ͼ ⺻ ִٰ ϰ ִ. ̷ Ģ ʴ ̴. ̷ ü ̶, Ģ̶ ˰ ִٰ ʴ´.

̷̶ , Ư ൿ ϴ İ ̴. ̷, ǰ 踦 ϴ ϰ ִ. ̷ ڿ谡  ۿϴ ΰ Ϸ õѴ.

̷, 츮 ̷п ǰ ִ  ߰ ȴ. ׷, ̷ Ȯ Ӽ ؼ öڵ ̿ ġ ʰ ִ. (Kourany).

̷ ȿ, ó õǾ , ٰϴ ۿ ʴ ͵ ʴ.  , ٵ ̷п ü Ǿ ־ ؼ ش. 쿡, ̷ ̱ ؼ Ѱ Ư¡ ־ Ѵ. Ȯ Ư¡ ٷ "迡 ؼ ؾ Ѵ." (, 40)

迡 ̷ ϴٰ ϴ , ̷п Ȥ Ư ִٴ ǹ̴. , ü  ϱ ϴ ̷κ, ڰ  ̴. ڸ ڰ ̷п δٸ ̷ Ȯȴ.  ڰ ʴ´ٸ ̷ ȴ. ( ӿ ̷κ ùٸ ǰ ùٸ ٰ Ѵٸ)

, ̷ հߴٰ ̷ Ǵ ƴϴ. ϸ Ҽ Ȯ(confirm) , ̷ ޾Ƶ̴ ո ȴ. Ȯ Ǿٴ γ ȴٴ Ͱ ƴϴ.   ̷е ȮǼ . ( : а Ȯ ̷  ͵ Ȯϴٰ ϴ.)

Դٰ ̷ ִ , ̷ ϴ () . (, 112, 267). ̷ ϴ ſ , Ϲ ׸ŭ ̷ ƴ ̴. ̷ dzϴ. װκ ̲ ־ ̷ ִ.  ׷, ̷ dzϰ, 迡 հߴٰ ص, ɼ ׻ Ѵ.  ſ ߾, ɼ ִ. Į ۴ ̷ ̷ Ư¡, " ɼ(falsifiability)" ҷ.

ϴٴ , ߸ Ǹ ִٴ ʿ Ÿ. νŸ Ư 뼺̷ "ùٸ" ޾Ƶ鿩 ִ , "迡 ʿ , ̷ Ǹ ְ ִ" ϴ ̴(Friedlander, 1972,41). ̰ ̷ ùٸٴ ǹ̴ ƴϴ. ̷а , ǵ ùٸ ƴϴ. ̶ ִ Ҹ Ե ƴ϶ ؼ ԵǾ ִ ̴. ( : ̷ ̶ մϴ.)

ηڷ ̱⵵ Ƽ J. п ''̶ " Ǹ ܰ(perverse)̶ Ǵ Ȯ " ǹ ̶ Ű ִ(, 1983, 254). ǰ ̷ ̰, " ȮǼ Ű ( hierarchy) ٸ Ѱ ƴϴ. (Facts) 迡 ڷ̴. ̷ ϰų ؼϴ ̵ ̴" ϰ ִ. δ ̿ ȴ. "̷ 츮 '' θ ˱ ؼ ׹̴. 츮 ׹ڸ ۰ Ϸ ϰ ִ ̴.

˰ Ϲε鿡, ̷ ݴ̴. ڰ ƴ '̷'̶ Ŀ ٰϴ ̳ ̶ ǹ̷ ̿ϰ ִ. 츮 ̷̶ ϴ , ̷ ̳ ƴϰ, ̶ ǹ̴. , ̷п ȮǼ ū ־ ̻ κ Ȯ ͱ پϴ. , ̷п ٰų ſ ū ̰ ִ. ,  ̷ ٸ ̷к ո ִٴ ̴.

̷кٴ , ѹ  Ƿ ȮǸ ( ¾ ٴ ) ̷ ٸ "" ü ʾ δ. , , ̷ Һ ä ʴ´ٴ ϰ ְ ִ. ٸ ٵ, ̷ȭ, , , ȭ, Ⱒ, ü,  ̷ȭ, , ̴. , ̷ а ¾  (anomalies, ) Ͼ ( ̷п ʴ ο ߰ߵǰ), ο ̷ õǾ ħ ̷ κ Ȥ üϴ ̴.  

γŰ ( : ΰ ϴ. å Ǿ ִ.) "ΰ ̴... п Ǵ Ǽ 迡 ִ.... 츮 ߸ 츮 ִ Ϳ ⿩ Ͽ"(Bronowski, 374) ؾ ȴ. ״ "ڿ ǥ ϳ 迡 Ȯ 縦  ϴ ̴. 20 ϳ, ǥ Ұϴٰ ̴" ߴ(353).

̰, ڴ ̴. ƴϰ, ڵ Ǽ . Ϲ , Ȯ ̶ . ׵  Ȯ ʴٸ װ ƴϸ, ƴϸ, ٸ  ǰ߰ ̶ Ѵ. ̷ ,  κδ, Ϲ κ ̷ ذ ϱ .

ϳ ̷ ǰϰ ֱ ʿ ̰, () 迡 ؼ ִ ƹ͵ ٴ ̴.  "ƮϽƮ" ϸ, " 谡  Ȯ ڵ鿡  ̴° 츮 ̴. . ̷ ܼ 㱸 ʴ´" Ѵ. ׷ ˱ ϳ ǵǰ, ̰, ʴ´ٴ , ϴٴ ǹϴ ƴϴ. 츮 ΰ ð Ѵٰ ؼ ̰ ٴ ǹϴ ƴϴ. ź ڵ , 迡 ο . ̷е 鼭 츮 ̰ ݾ ߰ . Ž ϰ ̷ " Ϳ ʰ", "Ϲ ظ Ÿµ ʴ" ϴ , а , ϰ ִ ̴.

Ҽ кҷμ

̶ , Į ̰ ó, Ҽӿ к̴. 츮 츮 ̳̽ η Ѿ, 츮 Ѿ, Ʈ ڿ ϰ ϸ ο Ѿ ְ ִ.

γŰ "ΰ (Ascent of Man)" ڷ ڽ ظ ִ. "İ Ȯ" οϰ Ѵ. ״ ƿ콴   ȸ ɾ , ۳´.

ΰ Ѿ, ܼ ڷ ġѴٰ ֽϴ. װ ߸Դϴ. ߸Դϴ. ּ. ƿ콴 ִ ҿ ȭԴϴ. ڰ Ǿ Դϴ. 뷫 400 ȸ ϴ. ׸ ̰ ſ ƴմϴ. ſ Դϴ. ̰ ٰ Ͼ Դϴ. ̰ Ű ΰ ϴ ൿԴϴ. (γŰ, 374).

Ǽ Ȯϴ ˾Ƴ δ, Ȯ(confirmation bias), wishful thinking, ڱ⸸(self-deception), (selective thinking), ְ (subjective validation) ϰ ȭ Ȥ ƾ ϸ, ӽ , ׸ post hoc reasoning ƾ ϸ ǰ ȸ ʿ 쿡 į 鵵 Ű ɷ ̴.

 

õ ׸ : alternative science, naturalism, pseudoscience, and those listed in the Logic/Perception & Science/Philosophy Topical Index and those listed in Junk Science and Pseudoscience.


** ׸ Becoming a Critical Thinker 9 а Сκ ̴. ''  ü ű⿡ ̳, Ȥ  и δ ̶ ͵ ˰ ִ. ׸ ''̶ Ϸ ƴϴ. ⼭ äϰ ִ , ڿ Ҹ ̴. ׸񿡼, ̰ ׷ Ϸ ϴ ƴϸ,   Ģ̳ Ȱ ΰ ƴѰ 踦 õ .

ڣƷ Ϻ ֿ knowledge ƴ϶ ϴ Ȯϴٰ ϰ ֽϴٸ, Ϻǵ ģ ؼ ̶ ߴٰ ֽϴ.

 

further reading

W. I. B. Beveridge, The Art of Scientific Investigation (New York: Vintage Books, 1957).

Jacob Bronowski, The Ascent of Man (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1973).

Irving M. Copi, Introduction to Logic 10th ed. (Prentice Hall, 1998).

Michael W. Friedlander, The Conduct of Science (New Jersey: Prentice?Hall, 1972).

Martin Gardner, Science: Good, Bad and Bogus (Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1981).

Ronald Giere, Understanding Scientific Reasoning, 4th ed. (New York, Holt Rinehart, Winston: 1998).

Stephen Jay Gould, "Evolution as Fact and Theory," in Hen's Teeth and Horse's Toes (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1983).

Stephen Jay Gould, "Piltdown Revisited," in The Panda's Thumb (New York: W.W Norton and Company, 1982).

Stephen Jay Gould, Ever Since Darwin (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1979).

Noretta Koertge, (Editor) A House Built on Sand : Exposing Postmodernist Myths About Science (Oxford University Press, 1998).

Janet A. Kourany, Scientific Knowledge: Basic Issues in the Philosophy of Science,2nd ed. (Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1997).

Thomas S. Kuhn. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions  3rd ed. (University of Chicago, 1996).

Karl R. Popper, The Logic of Scientific Discovery (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1959).

Carl Sagan, Broca's Brain (New York: Random House, 1979).

Carl Sagan, The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark (New York:Random House, 1995).

Alan Sokal, and Jean Bricmont. Fashionable Nonsense: Postmodern Intellectuals' Abuse of Science (St. Martin's Press, 1998).

Copyright 2000
Robert Todd Carroll

larrow.gif (1051 bytes) scapulamancy

Last updated 11/07/00

scientism rarrow.gif (1048 bytes)