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Robert Todd Carroll

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pyramid schemes, chain letters and Ponzi schemes, Ƕ̵ ,

Ƕ̵ ̶ ϱ ؼ ο ڰ ʿ Ѱ̴. ο ڴ a) ڱ⸦ ԽŲ ؾ ϰ, b) ؼ ׵ ο ڸ ƾ Ѵ.

Ƕ̵ ° Ƕ̵ ̱ ̸̴. Ƕ̵ ϰ 10 ο δٰ ϸ, 1, Ʒ 10, Ʒ 100, Ʒ 1000.. ְ ȴ. ̷ δ 10 Ǹ ؼ α ȴ. Ƕ̵带 ٰ ϸ, ܿ 18 ̿ Ʒ 45 ̻ ʿϰ ȴ.

Ʒ ׸ ٶ.
 
1
10
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
1,000,000
10,000,000
100,000,000
1,000,000,000
10,000,000,000

10 ο ȸ Ѵٰ ص 10̸ 100 α ʿϰ Ǹ ̰ α ξ ̴. 50̶ Ѵٸ Ƕ̵ Ʒʿ 45 ְ, 5 ְ ȴ. ׷Ƿ 5 ؼ 45 йڰ ʿ ̴.

Ƕ̵ ʸ , ȸ ݾ,  100 ڱ⸦ ԽŲ ־ Ѵ. ׸ ٽ 10 ο ȸ ؾ Ѵ. ε ׻ ο ڿԼ ޾Ƴ ̴. ο 10 1000 ְ, ڱⰡ 100 ϰ 900 ȴ. غ ؼ ȸ ־߸ Ѵ. ׷, 󿡴 ѵ ̴. 60̶ α ִٰ ϴ ο ȸ غ ϰ ݹ ٴڳ ̴.

׷Ƿ Ƕ̵ ḻ Ҽ . ؾ ɾ, ӿ Ұ Ǿִ. ǻ,  ӾƼ ϰ Ǿٸ, ٽ ٸ ' ϸ ִ' ӿ ԽŰ ̴. ؼ ̰ ̴. , ׵, ؼ ⸦ ġ ̴. ̰ ٷ Ƕ̵ ҹ ̴. ׵ ο ȸ ԽŰ, ȸ ο ȸ ԽŰ ҹ ƴϴ. ̰ ü ǽϴ Ϻ չ ̴. ׵ ҹ̶ , ο ȸ ִٰ ̰ ԽŰ鼭 ޱ ̴. ̰ ǹ̷ ̴.

׷ ǿ  Ƕ̵  ʴ´. װ ȸ ̴. Ƕ̵ ȸ ο ȸ ϸ鼭 ׾. 󿡴 ̷ ġç ִ ִ. 󿡴 " װ ̶ ʹ ׷ ̶, װ Ӽ ɼ " ƴ ʹ . 1 10 ϴ ó ʾƵ װ û ڰ ȴٴ ƴ . Դٰ ε ü ִ. ̰ 󸶳 ϴ, ƴϸ ˸⸸ ϸ ȴ.

ɰ Ҹ

Ƕ̵ Ž彺, Ž ŭ ȭų ֱ θ ̴.  Ͽ ª ð ʹٰ ϰ Ǹ Ҹ ϰ ȴ. ٶ ȴ. ȸڵ ƹ͵ ϴ ٺ ̴. 屸 ȴ. ϴ ų ȣ ̴. ۵  ٲپ ȴ. ׸ Ƕ̵ ϴ ȴ.

̷ ־ ұϰ Ƕ̵ Ŵ ϱ? κ ̴. κ Ƕ̵ ڱⰡ Ʒ ִٰ ʴ´. ̶ Ʒ ִ ̻ ȸ ̴. ׵ ׵ ϴ ٴ ּ θ ؼ κп ִٰ ؾ߸ Ѵ.

Դٰ ٸ Ƕ̵ ϱ⸦ ٶٸ, ؾ ׵ Ƕ̵ ƴ϶ ϴ ̴. ׵ Ƕ̵ ҹ ˰ ̴. Ǵ Ƕ̵ 90% ȸ غٴ ̴. ׷Ƿ ׵鿡 ׵  Ŭ ߴٰ ؾ Ѵ. ׵鿡 ̸ ִ.  ڵ Ŭ (Friendly Investors Club, FIC)̶ . FIC IRS ޾Ұ, CPA ؼ ٺ ƴ ڻ鿡 ؼ ȴٰ ȮŽѾ Ѵ. ߵȴٸ, ȸ ϰ ԽŲ, , , , , ̴. ׸ ް, ̰, ٸ ̴. ߵȴٸ, ȸ չ̰, ŷ Ŭ ͻӸ ƴ϶, ׵ ̴ 1 ޷ ̻ ޱ ݵ ʴ´ٰ ȮŽų ̴. ֳϸ, 10,000 ޷ ʱ ̴.  ȸ鿡 չ ϸ, ׵ ٸ κ ް ȴٰ ȮŽų ̴.

Ƕ̵ Ѵ.

1995-1996⿡ ּ ũ 45 θ 67 ε Ƕ̵ ԰ ؼ 縦 ޾Ҵ. (Sacramento Bee 10/28/95, 11/1/95 11/15 & 16/96). ĶϾƿ  ٸ 5 ſ ߴµ ̰ ο ԵǾ ־. ũ ڴ Ƴ. 7 γ ߽ 60 ĸ ȹ̶ . 9 ε ڸ ߸ ߰, ׵ Ѱ ݳؾ߸ ߴ. ˻翡 ϸ ּ 200̻ õǾ ִٰ Ѵ. ׷ 3 ˷ ó ް Ǿ. ϴ ٿ ϸ, ޷ ٰ Ѵ. Ϻ ּ رݾ 500 ޷.

Ƕ̵ ̸ " Ŭ"̾, " ڵ Ŭ" ̳, " Ʈ" ŷ ̸ . ׵ ڵ鿡 ̰ չ̰ IRS Ȥ CPA ؼ ޾, ׸ ̰ Ƕ̵ ƴ϶ ߴ.

ũ " Ŭ(The Freedom Club)" Ǵ ٸ ٸ ̸ ҷȴ. ׸ ׵ Ŭ ϴ ٴ չ̶ ӾҴ. Ź ũ ̵(Mike Boyd) IRS( : Ȯϰ ǥ ʾ Internal Revenue Service δ. 汹û̸, Կ Ѵ.), Ⱒ ִٸ Ŭ Ƕ̵ ƴѰ Ȯ Ҵ. IRS 鼭 ڱⰡ Ϳ ؼ ߴٸ װ ̻ ƴ϶ ߴ. ̵尡 ͺ ȣ ࿡ ǵ ƴϸ鼭 Ѵٴ ٰ ؼ ȿ ߻ ʴ´ٰ ߴ. (, ޴ ü 10,000 ޷ Ͽ չ ִ.) ׷ ȸ ׵ 500޷ ϰ 4,000 ޷ ̻ ߴٰ ̵ ߴ. Bee  10,000 ޷ ̻ ޾Ҵٰ ߴ. Ƕ̵ ¸ڴ Ŭ ߿ Ŭ 鿡 "" Ǿ. ̷ ҹ ų, Ȥ ο ȸ Ҽ ӵȴ. , 500޷ ϰ ̻ ϸ ƹ͵ ϰ ȴ. ᱹ ߰ Ǿ , װ ȸ ̴.

ũ Ƕ̵ 츮 "Ƕ̵ (pod)" θ ϰ ־.  (numero uno, : No.1 ̶ ǹ) ٸ 6 organizer ԽѼ 带 Ѵ. Ƹ 6 ׵ 󸶳 ̴° . 忡 鼭 , ٸ 500޷ ϰ ȴ. ̵ 8 spot̶ Ҹ Ʒ ܰ ؾ߸ Ѵ. 8 spot 500޷ Ѵ. Numero Uno ް ȴ. ̷ ϸ, 1 Numero Uno 14 ȴ. ׷Ƿ 带 2 . 2 7 ߿ Numero Uno ȴ. ׸ 6 ԵǾ ְ, 8 ԽŲ. ο ȸ 500 ޷ ϰ ȴ. Numero Uno 8 500޷ ް ǹǷ 4,000 ޷ ǰ װ Ҷ 500޷ ± ״ 3,500 ޷ ȴ. ̷ 2 4 ǰ 4 8 ǰ, 16 ǰ,, Ѵ þ ȴ. ؼ 带 ΰ̻ ϸ ȴ. ( ű⼭ Numero Uno Ǿ ϰ)

߿ 󸶳 ȸ 6.7% ھ 700% (500 ޷ ڿ 3,500 ޷ ް ), 93.3% ƹ͵ Ѵٰ ٰΰ? 󸶳 ȸ鿡 ׵ ſ ̶ ΰ?

̹ 쿡 Ƕ̵ ԵǾ ο ־µ (a) ΰ ̿ؼ ο ȸ ߴ. (b) γ Ȥ ο ŷڸ ֱ Ư ȸ ϴµ ־ ̴. (c) ȣѴٰ ϰ ȴ. ȣ ȴٸ, ٸ 鿡 ؼ ϴ ȿ ִ. ſ پ ̴.

 (Chain Letter)

, ȸ ϴ ο ȸ ɸ µ ̸ ִ. » ̸ Ʒ ְ Ǵµ ޴ ݾ Ʈ ִ ϸ, ׷ ϰ ڱ ̸ Ʒ ߰Ѵ. ϴ Լ ְ ǹǷ, ڽ ̸ ߰ Ŀ ٸ ߸ Ѵ. ̷, ȸ 鸸 ̸ ö 鸸 ޷ ִ. ׷ δ, κ ƹ Ѵ.  ̶ Ʈ ִ 鿡Լ ̸ м ִ. ׷ ̷ 罽 ʾƵ ü 95% ƹ͵ Ѵ.

, Ƕ̵ ڶ, (chain letter) ? ̿Ѵٴ ⺻ Ȱ ĸ̵ ̴. ģ鿡 ߿ ٸ Լ ް ȴٰ ӿ߸ Ѵ. Ƹ Ʈ Ե ް ̴. Ʈ ִ ̰, Ƹ Ŀ ̸ Ʈ Ʒ , Ű 5-10 ̴.

̶ Ī 1920뿡 鿡 ⸦ ƴ ð (Charles Ponzi) ̸ . ڰ ̸鼭 ߴµ ߿ ϴ ̿ؼ ޵Ǿ. ⼭ ? ó ̰ų Ȥ ʱ⿡ ̴. ׷ ? ƹ ̴. ߴٸ, κ ϰ 鿡, ̴ ó ̰ ϱ ؼ ̴. ̰ ڽŵ ߿ ٽ ؾ ǹ ִ. ο ű ڰ ʴ ̲ ŭ  ִ. Ȥ ٸ Ϸ ִ. , Ƽ 󽺺 ִ. ̷  Little League Baseball ģ Ͼ. ״ ڵ ٷ ڸ ũ(ֻ 2 ϴ ) ߰ ״ Ҿ ߴ.

Little League ģ 󸶳 Ҿȴ , 1993 縶Ͼƿ ־ Ȥ 1997 ˹ٴϾ(Albania) Ͼ ٴ ̴. ΰ ʿ õ Ƕ̵ ϴ 鿡 븦 ߴ. 縶Ͼ Ź 鸸 縶Ͼ īŸ Ƕ̵ Ҵٰ ߴ. ˹ٴϾ ʸ ˹ٴϾ ̳ ܱ ҹ Ƕ̵ ϳ ߴٰ ߴ. ׵ ڸ ߴµ, ʱ ߿ ߴ. ׵ ᱹ ο ڰ , ϰ Ҵ.("Investment-scam protest turns violent in Albania," by Merita Dhimgjoka, Sacramento Bee, Feb 6, 1977).  Ƕ̵ ̶ ڸ ᱹ ϰ Ǿִ. Ž ڱ⸸̴.

õ ׸ : Amway, multi-level marketing, Multi-Level Marketing harassment and my review of False Profits - Seeking Financial and Spiritual Deliverance in Multi-Level Marketing and Pyramid Schemes by Robert L. Fitzpatrick and Joyce Reynolds (Charlotte, N.C.: Herald Press, 1997).


б ڷ

reader comments

Read about Fortuna Alliance and the FTC charges that it is a pyramid scheme being run on the internet!

Bulgatz, Joseph. Ponzi Schemes, Invaders From Mars, and More Extraordinary Popular Delusions (Harmony Books, 1992). out of print

Fitzpatrick, Robert L. and Joyce Reynolds. False Profits - Seeking Financial and Spiritual Deliverance in Multi-Level Marketing and Pyramid Schemes (Charlotte, N.C.: Herald Press, 1997). See my review of this book.

Walsh, James. You Can't Cheat an Honest Man: How Ponzi Schemes and Pyramid Frauds Work... and Why They're More Common Than Ever (Merritt Publishing, 1998).

Copyright 1998
Robert Todd Carroll

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Last updated 11/13/98

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