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Robert Todd Carroll

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psychoanalysis & Sigmund Freud, м ׹Ʈ ̵freud

" 35Ⱓ 䰡 ߰Ǿ źм öú پٴ Ŵ ѹ ʾҴ. (Hines, 133).

" ڰ ƴϸ ڵ ƴϸ, 谡 󰡵 ƴմϴ. Ŵ ڿ 谡  ȣ̳ ұ , ׸ ̷ ϴ Դϴ. (Sigmund Freud, letter to Wilhelm Fliess, Feb. 1, 1900).

"1950볪 60, Ҹ鿡 鸮 ʾҴ. źм Űǻ ȯ  ׵ ϰ ִ ź п ġ ־. װ͵ ܽ ׵ ȯڿ ̾߱⸸ ν ϴٰ ߴ. (Dolnick, 12).

м ǻ ɸ Ҿƹ̰, ̳ ̳ ź ؿ θ ˸ δ, ̾緯 ̾ ϰ ִ. , м п Ű ȭ ȯ ƴ϶, ڱ ȯ Ǿ ִ. ̳ ȯ ȭ ƴ϶, ư ȴ. ׵鿡Դ ๰ġᰡ ʿ. ȭ ʿ ̴. Ű漺 Ŀ ̳ ı ؼ ̴(, 82). ̷ ȯ ó濡 м ؿ  ٰŰ ִ ϱƹ͵ .

Ʈ, п ߴٰ ߴ. ׿ , ְ ƴ϶, ذ ʴ ⿡ Ͼ ǽ ̴. ׷ ״, п ȯڴ ġ ϰ, ġῡ ϰ DZ , м п ȿ ٰ ߴ(Dolnick, 40). мǴ, п ƿ ϰ Ͼٰ Ȱ Ȯϰ ŵ ߴ. , 1948⿡ - Ʒ ̸ п ɸ ϴ Ӵ϶ ǹ̷ "źп Ű ģ(schizophrenogenic mother)"̶  ´(Dolnick, 94). ׳ ռ м ȭ Ƿ ڽ ޹ħϿ, ׳ Ŀ 20 ̻, ׳డ ߸ Ǿ.

̳ 索 ġϴµ, "ȭ"̳ ȯ ΰ? , ׷ ̴. 索 ȯڿ ׳ " " ̳ ""̶ ϸ  ұ غ.  ü ȯ ؼ м ϴ Ͱ , ͽŵȴٰ 𸥴. ̳ ҽ̳ źмǰ ϴ ü ҽ̳ ٸ? ׷ ұϰ,  Ű ȭ Ȥ ü ȯ , еǰų Ȥ ϴ ܻ ü̳ ü(Ǵ )̶ 忡 ϴ ϱ? װ Ƹ, ڰ ڽŵ ž ü谡 ̻ Ϳ ʴ 巯 Ű е Ƶ, ü踦 ܳ ʴ Ͱ ̴.

׵ ȸ ´ ̳ 信 Ͽ ȭ ְ, κ ƴϴ. ٸ ʴ´. ͵, ٺ ϰ, ⸸̰, ұϰ,   ̳ ü ޾Ƽ ̳ Ǹϰ ȿ Ǿ Դ.

м ʿ ִ , е ܻ μ ǽ̴ ְ, ǽ ׻ ǽ ൿ ģٶ ̴. ǽ ̶ ٰŰ ϰ, ǽ ൿ£ ޴´ٴ ŵ . ( ״ о Ѵ. ǽ Ѵٴ Ͱ, Ͻ (implicit memories) ʴ´ٰ ϴ ƴϴ.)

̿ м ϱ õǾ ǽļ ϱ ź ΰ ִ. м̴. ΰ ȭ ʾ, ʴ´. ΰ θ Ȯ ʰ ڱ ְ ϴ ̻ ǥ̴.

⳪ ̳ ܻ ǽļӿ еǾ ִٰ м ,  Ͼ° ϰ ޹ħǰ ִ ƴϴ. ׷, ǽ и ص (remember) ǰ ִ (memory) ִٴ ŷ ޹ħ ǰ ִ. ڴ ̿ , Ͻ implicit memory)̶ θ ִ. DZ ؼ ƿ Ҿ ߴ ο ߴؾ Ѵٴ ŵ ִ. DZ ؼ ȣȭ(encode)Ǿ Ѵ. ȣȭ ʴ´ٸ, 츮 Ҵ ϴ Ͱ , ȴ. ȣȭ ϰ Ͼ, 迡 ȭǰ Ͻ (implicit memory) ȴ. ⿡ д ̳, ̿ õ ɼ ǻ . д뿡 Ͻñ , ٰŰ Ȳ ƴϴ.

д Ͻ װ ǽ ҰԵǰ, ȣȭ ̴. ڰ, ִ. ̷ 濡 Ͼ. ׳ (brick)  (path) ܾ ׳ ǽĿ ڲ , ׳ ̵ ǰ νŰ ߴ. ׳ Ϸ ϸ ׳డ װ  ߴ س ߴ. (Schacter, 232). ָ̳ ̳ ġ ׳ ڽſ Ͼ µ ʴ . ׳ Ȯϰ ϰ ϴ. װ ʹ ߱ ׳ Ҿ Ȯϰ ܻ  ȣȭ ߱ ̴. мdz ġ ⲯؼ ִ ׳࿡ ¥  ٽѹ ׳࿡ ˸ ͻ̴.

п м ؿ ٺ Ǿ ִ , θ ƿ Ư ģ ƴ δ ƴ϶ ص, ΰ ַκ Ǵ ź ̸ α ȯ ̶ ̴. ̰ ް ڶ Ǹ, ̰  ǰ λ ̷ ǽ . ׷ ü λ Ű, Ǵ λ ü迡 Ѵٰ ̿ ū ̰ ִ. 忡 ŵ .

, м Ƹ ʴ ͣе ) Ž, Ʋ Ǵ ü ȯ Ű ִ), ׸ ùٸ Ǵ ġ̷ ( ǽ ǥŰ ġ ߿ ) ٰϰ ִ. ̰, ǽİ ൿ ̽׸ ó ̴ 鸮 տ ϰ ִ. ׷ ʰ ̶̶, ̷ ̷  ִ°?

׹Ʈ Ʈ(1856-1939) Ͽ 1 񿣳 ߵ м μ ߿ ͵鵵 ִ. Ʈ ȭ ؼ ν Ѿ ൿ Ϸ ߴ ڶ ͸ε 츮 ߴ ؾ ̴.

ൿ̳ ȯ źм Ͱ ٴ ̵带 ϰų ϴ ︮ ʴ´. , 츮 ̳ ൿ ؿ ؼ ʹ ϰ,ϰ, ̳ Ắ̻Ѹ ̰ ̵ ſ ϸ ȴ. мǵ, м о߿ ٸ о߿, ͸ ̵ Ʈ ߱ ̵忡 ߴ. , ȼҴ мǷμ ̿ ϰ ִ:"οϰ ִ 鿡 ̳ ִ ͺٵ, ̷ Ҹ ð ͸ Ʈ ̾ , κ ġ ʰ Ǿ ̰ ȯڿ ǻ ο Ǿ."(Storr, 120)

 

õ ׸ : dreams, false memory, Carl Jung, memory, New Age Psychotherapies, repressed memoryrepressed memory therapy,  trauma search therapy, and the unconscious mind.


б ڷ

Dawes, Robyn M. House of Cards - Psychology and Psychotherapy Built on Myth, (New York: The Free Press, 1994).

Dineen, Tana. Manufacturing Victims: What the Psychology Industry is Doing to People (Montreal: Robert Davies Multimedia Publishing, 1998).

Dolnick, Edward. Madness on the Couch - Blaming the Victim in the Heyday of Psychoanalysis (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998).

Hines, Terence. Pseudoscience and the Paranormal (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1990).

Feinberg, Todd E. and Martha J. Farah. editors, Behavioral neurology and neuropsychology (New York : McGraw-Hill, 1997).

Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents.

Freud, Sigmund. Future of an Illusion.

Gold, Mark S. The Good News About Depression : Cures and Treatments in the New Age of Psychiatry (New York: Bantam Books, 1995).

Marquis.Julie. "Erasing the Line Between Mental and Physical Ills,"  Los Angeles Times, October 15, 1996.

Papolos, Demitri and Janice Papolos. Overcoming Depression 3rd ed. (HarperCollins, 1997).

Pincus, Jonathan. and Gary. Tucker. Behavioral Neurology, 3rd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985).

Schacter, Daniel L. Searching for Memory - the brain, the mind, and the past (New York: Basic Books, 1996).
Review

Storr, Anthony. Feet of Clay - saints, sinners, and madmen: a study of gurus (New York: The Free Press, 1996).

Copyright 1998
Robert Todd Carroll

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