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Robert Todd Carroll

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pseudoscience, ǻ, ̺

̶̺ ̶ ϴ ̷е鿡 ʸ   ̵ ̴. ̷ ǰ ǹִ Ǿ߸ ̶ Ѵ. ַ ̷κ ߷Ͽ ǽѴ. ǹִ ̶ ּ ̷лζ ̷ ־ Ѵ. Įۿ ϸ ̷ ̷ Ư¡  ɼ̶ Ѵ. ̺ ̷ ̶ Ѵ. ɴϴ ̴. δ ʰų, Ǿ ̰Ϳ ϴ ̷ Ǿٴ ޾Ƶ̱ źϰ ִ.

̺ڵ ׵ ̷ ſ ٰѴٰ Ѵ. ׸ ׵ ߴٰ ׵ 迡 ؼ ϰ ϴ 찡 ִ. ̺ڵ ׵ ̷ ˷ ̳ Ǵ ¾ƶٰ Ѵ. ׷ ׵ ̷ ġ ͵ ٴ Ѵ. ̷ ǰ ¾ƶ Ѵٴ ʿ ƴϴ.  ̷ ǵ ȴٸ и ̷ ƴ ̰ ǰ ¾ƶٸ Ǹ ̷̶ ̲ ƴϴ. , " Ƿɿ ؼ ٴ Ǽ Ƿ ִ ߱ ɸ ʾҴٴ κ ߷Ѵٰ Ǵ ƴϴ." 1

̺ڿ ̺ 巯 ū Ư¡ .

1. ̶ ,  ǹִ ε ׽Ʈ ̷ ϴ ִ. ̷ ִ ǿ ؼ ϰְ ϰ, ̰ ִ  ͵ . Ȥ ̷е ü  ̿ؼ ִ. . L. Ron Hubbard's engram theory.

2. е ұϰ ̷ ϴ źϰų ӽù ̿ؼ ݴǴ ŵ Ϸ Ѵ. . parapsychology.

3. ڷ : ڷḸ ϰ ʴ ʴ´  . ̿, ã, ʽɸ.

4. ȭ ŷ Ѵ. . ̿, ̾Ƴƽ, ʰ, ʽɸ

5. ̷ϴ Ű ٴ ο . ̾Ƴƽ, Ű.

6. ̷ ϱ ؼ ȭ ̽׸ ̿ϰ ٽ װ ȭ ̽׸ Ѵ. . â, Ű, .

7. , ڿ, Ȥ ܰ 忡 ӱ⽬. . â, ʽɸ. 2

õ ׸ : ad hoc hypothesis, cold reading, communal reinforcement, confirmation bias, control study, Occam's razor, pathological sciencethe placebo effect, the post hoc fallacy, pseudohistory, science, selective thinking, self-deception, subjective validation, and testimonials.

See entries on the following pseudoscientific ideas:


Notes

  1. W.I.B. Beveridge, The Art of Scientific Investigation (New York: Vintage Books, 1957), p. 118.
  2. Cf. Daisie and Michael Radner, Science and Unreason (Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1982), especially chapter 3, "Marks of Pseudoscience." Carl Sagan wrote to a parapsychology institute to tell of a precognitive dream he had which didn't pan out. They ignored him. Imagine, he asks, what kind of treatment they would have given him had he claimed that his dream had coincided with some future event. "The hits are recorded, the misses are not." See Sagan, "Night Walkers and Mystery Mongers", in Broca's Brain (New York: Random House, 1979), p. 45.

б ڷ

reader comments

Friedlander, Michael W. At the Fringes of Science, (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1995).

Dawes, Robyn M. House of Cards - Psychology and Psychotherapy Built on Myth, (New York: The Free Press, 1994).

Gardner, Martin. Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1957).

Gilovich, Thomas. How We Know What Isn't' So: The Fallibility of Human Reason in Everyday Life (New York: The Free Press, 1993).

Glymour, Clark and Douglas Stalker."Winning Through Pseudoscience," in Philosophy of Science and the Occult, edited by Patrick Grim. 2nd ed. (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990), pp. 75-86.

Gould, Stephen Jay. Ever Since Darwin, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1979).

Radner and Radner, Daisie and Michael. Science and Unreason (Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1982).

Sagan, Carl. Broca's Brain: Reflections on the Romance of Science (New York: Random House, 1979).

Sagan, Carl. The Demon-Haunted World - Science as a Candle in the Dark (New York: Random House, 1995).

Shermer, Michael. Why People Believe Weird Things : Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our Time (W H Freeman & Co.: 1997).

Singer, Margaret Thaler and Janja Lalich. Crazy Therapies (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1996).

Spanos, Nicholas P. Multiple Identities and False Memories: A Sociocognitive Perspective (Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1996).

Copyright 2000
Robert Todd Carroll

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Last updated 11/03/00

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