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polygraph ("lie detector") ׷, Ž

" ˰ ִ Ž ̶ ̴. " 
  --í н

׷ ڵ, ׸ ȣ ȭ ϴ ġ̴. ׷ FBI, CIA, KGB, KKK, , ׸ 缳 Ž ǰ ִ. ׷ ⺻ ̷ ϸ ׷ Ͽ ſ Ű īοٴ ̴. , ڵ ϰ, , ȣ , ȴ. Ư¡ 亯ڿ ڰ ̹ ˰ ִ ν ִ. ؼ  ǥ ֵȴ.

׷ ׽Ʈ 3 ⺻ ִ.

  1. The Control Question Test (CQT). ׽Ʈ ˿ õ ߸ ൿ Ͽ ϴ ׽Ʈ̴. " ׽Ʈ ڰ ó ޾ƾ ϴ ƴϸ ˿ ϴµ ȴ." (APA:̱ Ž ȸ). ( : Ž Ȩ (Control Question Technique) ̶ Ǿִµ ܾٴ  ︱ δ.)
  2. The Directed Lie Test (DLT). ׽Ʈ ǵ ȭ ̿ؼ Žϴ ̴.
  3. The Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT). ˿ ߼ Ͽ ϴ ˿ ڰ ˰ ־ Ѵ.

ɸڵ CCT DLT ʴٰ Ѵ. ׷ American Psychological Association ؼ ٿ ϸ ټ Guilty Knowledge ׽Ʈ ո ̷п ٰϰ " ִ " ϰ ִ. ׷ ׵ " ǿ ߰ ̴ ̰ ϴ ʴ´." ߴ. ׽Ʈ Ŀٶ ٴ ̴. ٸ ڰ ϱ ־߸ ϸ ؿ  Ͽ п ɼ ٴ ̴. 亯ڰ (insider) ˰ ִ ҿ ٸ ϴ ̴. Դٰ ؼ ٸ ʴ´ٴ ڰ ˶ Ű ޾Ƶ鿩 ȴ. Ȥ ׳డ ݻȸ ι̰ų ź̰ų ƴϸ ܼ ɼ ִ.

׷ ŽѴٴ Ű ִ°? ۽, ġ , ȣ ȣӵ Ѵ. ̷ ȭ Ͼٰ Ѵٸ Ʒù 亯ϴ ϴ ִ. ̷ ȭ 踦 ϴ ̳ Ģ ִ°? ƴϴ. ׷ ׵ ġ ̿ؼ ϴ ٸ Žϴ ͺ Ǹϴٴ Ŵ ִ°? .  赵 ׸  ߵ ϰų ϴ ſ Ȯϰ ˾Ƴ . ( : Ϲ 70% ƹ ˾Ƴ ִٰ մϴ.)

ǿ ġ(Oren Hatch) , FBI ׷ ġ ̳(Paul Minor) Ѵٰ ϴ, ̱踦 ŷ ʴ´.  ƴŸ (Anita Hill) ̳ʰ ǽ ׷ ׳ Ŭη 丶 ؼ ߴٰ ܾߴ. Hatch ׳డ Ѵٰ ϰ ִٸ ׽Ʈ ִٰ ߴ. ġ Ƹ ̴. ݻȸ ׷ Ѵٴ 谡 ٸ Ž ؼ Ȯϰ Ž ϴ Ǵ ƴϴ. ( : 1991 Ŭ󷣽 丶 ɿ ӸǾ, ƴŸ Ŭη ؼ ߴٰ Կ . δ ƴŸ . ׳ ּ ȸ ΰ۵ ߴ.)  

׷ ŽⰡ ƴ , ̰ ϴ ڵ ȭ, ȭ, ׸ ȣ ٸ ο ؼ ֱ ̴. Ű, г, , Ȳ ׸ η ڵ, , ׸ ȣ ȭų ִ. ȭǿ ̷ ִ. Ӹ ƴ϶ , , , Ȥ Ű Ȥ ȭ Ѽ ׷ Ÿ ִ. ȭ ٸ ȭ ִٴ ʾҴ. ġ Ű ִٰ ص 츮 Ű źγ ηϱ ̶ Ȯ . Ϻ ڽ ص ϴ Ÿ Ѵٰ η ִ.

ĶϾƿ ٸ ֿ ׷ ŷ ޾Ƶ ʴ´. ̰ ׷ ׽Ʈ ٰ ˷ų, Ȥ ׷ ؼ ִ ؼ ɰϰ ɼ ξ ̶ ߱ ̴. ׽Ʈ Ȱ ħ ڿ ũ ִ. ȸڵ ׷ Ű ָ鿡 ŭ̳ ٰ ϰ ִ. ָ ĶϾƿ Ÿ ٸ ֿ ޾Ƶ鿩 ʴ´.

1998 ̱ ׷ Ÿ ǼҼۿ ޾Ƶ ʱ "Military Rule of Evidence 707" ߵ Ǹ ϴ ƴ϶ . (United States, Petitioner v. Edward G. Scheffer).

̱ ù (The American Civil Liberties Union) 1988 ׷ ( Employee Polygraph Protection Act, EPPA) ߴµ ֵ ̳ ϱ ؼ ׷ ϴ ״. EEPA ׷ ҹ ƴϾ. , ο κμ ׷ Ѵ. δ Ⱥ õ Ʈ ڵ鿡 ׷ ˻縦 ǽѴ. о߿ Ⱦü ȸ翡 ̳ ׷ ϰ ִ. Դٰ  ֵ ׷ ׽Ʈ ǽ ִ.

... Ȳ /׳డ սǿ 縦 ϸ鼭 ǽõȴ. ǽɵǴ 꿡 ־߸ ϰ ִ ǽ ϴ ۼؾ Ѵ. (ACLU).

ACLU EPPA ϴ ׷ Ŵɷ Ӹ ƴ϶, ̰ ϴ Ȱ ħظ ֱ ̴.

Ž ˻縦 ޴ " "  Ȯϱ ؼ ׽Ʈ ޴ ˻ڰ ǵ Ȳϰ ϰų ְų 尨 ִ. 1987 ACLU Ҽۿ North Carolina 籹 " ð Ų °" Ȥ " ֱٿ ϴٰ ̴ ΰ" ޾Ҵٴ 巯. ׷ ׽Ʈ ķġ ְ 뵿 ڰ аڵ ׵ ˿ ߴٰ Ű ؼ Ǿ Դ. (ACLU).

а谡 ׷ ȿ ؼ Ϲ ޾Ƶ ұϰ (, )  ׸ ΰ ֵ ׷ Ϸ ϴ ΰ? Ҹ ΰ? ׷ ڴ ׽Ʈ 󽺷  ϴ ٰ ϰ ;ϸ ׵ Ű ٴ ϱ ϱ? Ƹ ׷ ̴. ٸ , 'ź ȿ' ͵ ִ. ׷ ġ ϸ, ̿ ֽô ó δ. ̰ Ʒ ִ. ũ 迡 ¿ Ư Ʒù ߿ Ȯ ش.  ϰ  ʴ ְ ش.

׷ θ ٸ δ ̰ ȿ ִٰ ϴ 'ǿ뼺 '̴. ʵ ׷ Ȯϴٴ ʷ ִ. ٸ ŵ鿡 ؼ ϴ 巯 쿡 ׷ ʵ ִ. ׽Ʈ ߿ ڱ ڽ ϴ ʵ ִ. ŷ 踦 ʰ Ȯϴ Ȯϰ Ž ִٴ Ű ִ°? . ŵ ȭ̰ 谡 ΰ ϴ ߸ ߷п ٰϰ ִ.

ٸ ,  ο ,  , ׸ ȸ ֵ ׷ ̿ϴ ׵ ׽Ʈ ؼ ȸ翡 ϰ ϴ ̿ ۵ ༭ ϰ Ѵٰ ϱ ִ. Ȥ ̰ ڵ ϵ ֱ ؼ ϴ 𸥴. ٸ Ѵٸ ڴ 谡 Ž ִٰ ׵ ϴ 谡 ִٰ ϰ ִٴ ˱ ִ. ׷Ƿ Ž Ȯ ٸ ٰ .   ׵ ̿ ְ ִ.


б ڷ

reader comments

Davis, R. C., "Physiological Responses as a Means of Evaluating Information," in A. D. Biderman & H. Zimmer, eds., The Manipulation of Human Behavior (Wiley, 1961).

Lykken, David Thoreson. A Tremor in the Blood : Uses and Abuses of the Lie Detector (Plenum Press, 1998).

Jussim, Daniel. "Ouija Board Justice" in Florida : the Polygraph Comes to School, in Civil Liberties, No. 358 (summer-fall 1986).

Maschke, George W. and Gino J. Scalabrini. The Lie Behind the Lie Detector [pdf format]

Morris, Roberta, "The Admissibility of Evidence Derived from Hypnosis and Polygraphy," in Psychological Methods in Criminal Investigation and Evidence, ed. by David Raskin (Springer Publishing Co., 1989.)

Raskin, David, "Polygraph Techniques for the Detection of Deception," in Psychological Methods in Criminal Investigation and Evidence, ed. by David Raskin (Springer Publishing Co.,1989.)

Shneour, Elie. "Lying about polygraph tests," Skeptical Inquirer Spring 1990 (vol.14, no.3).

"Polygraph tests are degrading, don't work-- and should be banned," in Civil Liberties, No. 355 (fall 1985).

Copyright 2000
Robert Todd Carroll

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