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Robert Todd Carroll

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phrenology (cranioscopy),

Gall(Gall), ΰ ΰ ̳ ɷ ϴ ̴. ̺, ϴ λ '(ί)' , ΰ ð ϸ ġ ִٶ ߸ ϰ ִ. ǻ Ҽ (Franz-Joseph Gall, 1758-1828) 28 '' , ̰͵ ΰ شٰ ߴ.

ι 'α' ִٰ ߴ. (Gall) 'ҿ뼳' ϱ⵵ ߴ. ϴ ߴϰ, ʴ ȭϹǷ, ΰ װͿ Ͽ ϰų Ըϰų Ѵ. ̷ ΰ ö, ϸ ΰ Ȱ̳ Ȱ ϴ Ư ݿ ̴. ̷ ΰ ö ''̶ ҷ. , ̱ ޽ŲJohann Kaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832) , ȸ George Combe (1788-1858), '̻ ȥ'̳ 'Ʈ(wit)' Ϳ ؼ, θ ׷ ϰ ⵵ ΰ з ߴ. 1815, Thomas Foster Spurzheim 'phrenology'(phrenos ǽ, ǹ) θ, ״.

ΰ ̳ , , ٿ̸, ġ ϴ ű ٸٴ ߴ. ǰ Ǵ. ׷, ô ϴ ͹ۿ , ڴ ٸ Ǵ ű ų ۿ , ٽ ΰ Ǿ. ȯ ΰ ؼ ϴ , ̰ Ư Ű ɿ ִ κе ãƳµ ־ ̴. ׷ п, ſ Ư ̷. Gall ʱ ڿ ⿡ ̾, '' ̷ ݿϰ ִ. Spurzheim ̷ ''̳ 'α' Ͽ 'ھֽ'̳ 'ڱ' üϿ.

, ٰ νĵʿ ұϰ, ź Ѵ. 19⸦ Ͽ, Ư ̱ Ͽ, ΰ(craniometry)̳ ü(anthropometry), ̺ Ҵ. Spurzheim 1832⿡ ̱ ϱ ؼ , Ralph Waldo Emerson, Horace Mann, Thomas Edison, Alfred Russell Wallace ߴ.The Fowler Brothers Samuel Wells "̱ Life Illustrated(American Phrenological Journal and Life Illustrated : ϳ ̸)" 1838 1868 Ͽ. Combe 1823 1847 ǵǾ. α⸦ Ÿ δ, ϳ, Combe 'ΰ (The Constitution of Man)' ִ. å 1928 1868 30ΰ ȷȴ.

γ ݰ 迡 Ű ״ и ʾұ ʱ⿡ ڵ ̿ αⰡ ־ٴ ϱⰡ ʴ. ݼ Ӹ ڷ Phineas Gage ٲ ̷ 迡 Ȯ Ű Ǿ(Damasio). Gage ׻ Ͼ Ʈ īÿ öǼ ̲ ־. Ͼ ״ ſ ϰ ȿ̰, ̾ ƴ . Ͼ ״ ", ϰ, ׸ 󽺷 , ׸ ׿ ؼ ʾҴ. ״ ſ ϰ, ϰϰ, ϰ, δϰ, ̷ ؼ  ȹ Ǿ."*  δ ٸ Ӹ bump Ʒ ɿ 谡 ȴٴ п ȴٰ 𸥴.

Bob McCoy Lanvery White psychograph ´. ̰ ġ ִ ̾. 1934 īڹȸ 20޷ Ű. ˾Ƴ ˾Ƴ Ͱ ޶ Ȯ ʾ ұϰ ߴ. Ƹ ̷ ְ ڷᰡ ƴ϶ ȿ (Forer effect) ̴.

õ ׸ : anthropometry, craniometry, the Forer effect, metoposcopy and physiognomy.

б ڷ

Damasio, Antonio R. Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain (Avon Books, 1995).

Gardner, Martin. Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1957), ch. 24, "From bumps to handwriting."

McCoy, Bob. Quack! : Tales of Medical Fraud from the Museum of Questionable Medical Devices (Santa Monica Press, 2000).

Skrabanek , Petr & James McCormick Follies And Fallacies In Medicine (Buffalo, N.Y. : Prometheus Books, 1990).

Stern, Madeleine B. A Phrenological Dictionary of Nineteenth-Century Americans (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1982).

Copyright 1998
Robert Todd Carroll

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Last updated 12/19/98

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