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Robert Todd Carroll

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memory,

( : ̶ ܾ remember memory ׸ recall ԵDZ ϸ ̸ ǥϰڽϴ.)

ü ( ) ϴ Ͱ ̰͵ ȸϴ ɷ̴.

/ ؼ ǿ ̳  ۿ(work)ϴ° ǵ ʴ´. ׷,  ۿϴ° ϴ پ , ̶ְ Ͱ (Schacter, 1996) ˷ Ͱ ϰ ̴. (remembering) ְΰ̶°  Ʒ ϰ ִ. 

1. (memory) 屸 , ⿡ ȴ. 
2. (memory) ݵȴ.
3. (memory) ϴ (rememberer) £ ڰ(awareness) ϴ 찡 .(Schacter, 1996).

ϴ ൿ ( ൿ Ѱ ̴) ɸ ( ǻͿ ̴)̴. ̵ ʵ ̸ְ 屸 ȴٴ ΰ ⺻ Ѵ(Schacter,1996). ̵ ܻ(Ʈ츶) Ǿ ǽ ģٶ ϰ ϰ ִ. ǽĿ ǽĵǴ ൿ ϴ ߿ ȴٶ ̴. ̵ Ʈ츶迡 £ ؼ ˷ Ͱ ϰ . ſ , Ʈ츶̶ ϸ Ҽ ̴. Ʈ츶 ð ̹ ϴ ̷ ̹ ظ ο ڱϿ ȴ.

Ű , Ϸ ȣȭ Ű ̶ ϰ ϰ ִ. ȣȭ κп Ͼ ǹǷ Ű κ Ⱦ ϰ ȴ. ϸ Ҽ ﵵ ϰ ȴ.  Ű濬 κ߿  κ̶ ڱع޾ұ ̴.  κ ó , װ ִ Ű Ұϰ ȴ. , Ʈ츶 , ǰϰ ǽ ¶, ڰ ̰ų Ȥ ߿ ջ 찡 ƴ϶ װ ؾ  ɼ ̴.

⿡ ٿ, ̵  д ǽ ǰ, ɸ ȯ  д뿡 ǽ £ ߻Ѵٶ ϰ ִ. ׷, ׷ д밡 ǽ еǴ´ٵ簡 Ǵ ׷ ǰ ɸȯ ߿ ȴٴ ޹ħҸ ٰŴ .

, ΰ θ Ѵٴ , ̴. ׷ ͽ κ 翡 ϸ ɸ  84% ӿ ȴٰ ϰ ִ(Schacter, 1996,76). 

αִ

£ αִ ϳ " ȸܼ(retrieval cue)" Ҹ ׷(engram) Ϳ ڱصǾ 'ǽ ൿ', ' 籸 ' ִ. ׷() ȣȭ Ÿ ŰƮũ̴. ٸ Ÿ , ̰ ٸ κ ϰ ִٴ Ű ִ. , ظ(ة) ϻ Ȱ ־ ǿ (ܱ Ȥ Ȱ)ϰ ü(amygdala) £ Ѵ(Schacter, 1996, 213). ä ϴ 'ڴ' Ǵ '׸', ''̶ ٴ ڶ Ȥ ߱ ̶ ϴ Ͱ. 𵨿 , ǽĿ ڷ θ ϴ ƴϴ. ڷ δ ϵǾ ʴ´. ϵǾ ׷ ӿ ȣȭ Ǿ Ȥ ̴. ̷  ȣȭ Ǿ° ʾҴ. ( : Ϻǿ ϸ . - ⼭ ϴ ׷ ̾Ƴƽ ̾߱Ǵ ׷ ٸ ...п ׷ ޵Ǿ, Ű漼 Ȥ ŰƮũ Ͼ ȭкȭ ƴѰ ϰ ǰ ִ.)

αִ Ư ȴٴ ̵ ϴ ̴. Ư ȴٴ ϵ ׷̺꽺 ʵ(Wilder Graves Penfield) 1950뿡 迡 . ״ ȯ ο ְ ȯ 520 40 Ű Ͽ ߴ. ټ ɸ(׸ ʺڵ) ̷ , ڱ ϸ ȴٴ ŷ οϰ ִ. (Schacter) ʵ ̷ ŷμ Ű ƴ϶ ϰ ִ. ʵ尡 Ű ȯڴ ȯ8 1 ʾҴ. װͻ ƴ϶ ״ ΰ Ȥ, ȯ, ȯ Ȥ ȭ (, confabulation) ƴ϶ ϴ Ÿ ߴ.

(forgetting)

2 ܿ 𵨿 Ʒ ο ߻Ѵ. 

    1. ȣȭ(츮 㿡 Ǹ 繰 ؾ , ̰ ̴.
    2. Ͼ ȸܼ(retrieval cue) ( ڱϴ ʿϴٰ ϰ ִ)
    3. ð 迡 ŰƮũ ȭ( ü ϰ ִ°?)
    4. ݺ(Ư Ư Ļ ϰ , 1 ȭ ɶ Ծ° ϰ Ұ̴) ; Ȥ
    5. ڱڽ ϰ Ű ൿ( ƹ ͵ ؾ° Ұϴٸ  ΰ? ¸ ̴. ̰ L. . Ϲٵ ̾Ƴƽ(dianetics) ǥ ϰ ִ ̴. ڴ ̷ Ͼ  Ǵ° ׸ ȣ ̽ 콺(Jorge Luis Borges) 'Funes, the memorious' о ٶ. ( : ȣ ̽ 콺 ƸƼ а̴.)

(remember) Ȯ "ȭ(consolidation)" ؼ Ǹ, ȭ ȣȭ Ѵ. 迡 ϰų ̾߱ϴ Ȯ δ. ˷ ϳ (association) ִ.

  ٿ

, ϰ ǰ Ȯ , Ѱ ߿ κп ؼ ߸˰ ִ 찡 ִ. ٿ ̴.

    1980 ſ γ ̰ ĵ ¹ ϻ Żϵ 2 ݱ Ϸ ̾߱⸦ ݺؼ ߴ. ѻ λ Ծ Żϴ° Ұߴ. ̰ ư Ϸ 縦 ߴ ", 츮 ı Բ."... ̾߱ 1944 ȭ 'A wing and a Prayer' Ȱ. ̰ Ȯ ϰ ־ ٿ ؾȴ. (Schacter,1996,287)

ٿ (source amnesia Ȥ memory misattribution)ϴ ʷν, 轼(Donald Thompson)ڻ簡 ˷  Ҵ ̾߱Ⱑ ִ. 轼 Ͼ TV ͺ䰡 ߰ Ǿ. θ TV ׿ ȥعȴ.(Schacter,1996.114). þ (Marcia Johnson) ϸ ϴ ɷ ó س ִ° Ѵٰ ϰ ִ.

ĭ罺 ǽ(Junction City) ٵ ɽ̾ Ŭȣ Ʈ ӷ û ǹ Ŀ Ͱ Ryder Ʈ ؼ ڼ ߴ. Ƽ ƺó ٸ ߱ ڸ , T- Ծ Ȳġ ߴ. Todd Bunting ̾, ״ ƺ ٷ Ʈ ̾. ɽ̾ ȥ Դٰ ܾߴ.

Ƶɸ Ǿ, ѵλ춧 ̶ ߴ. ״ ڱⰡ ӿ Լ Ű ൿ, ó Ű ۰ 並 ġ i ̴. ̾߱ ,׸ ̷ ̾߱⸦ 鿡 ȭ Ǿ. ׷ ̷ δ Ͼ ʾҴ. ̼ 13 Ǿ ̰ ׳ ٸ糽 ̾߱ ģ ߴ. Ǿ ߿ ̷ .  '..,  ӿ ð · ſ Ͽ. ̰ ƴϾ.' (Tavris). 

ǰ Ͻÿ

 , 츮 ̶ ̾߱⸦ ๰ , , Ȥ ü.ɸ Ʈ츶 ⿡ Ͼ ؼ ϰ ȴ. Ƿμ, Űǻ簡 (, fugue) θ ° ִ. ǰ ڱ Ǽ ָ ,  ű Դ° Ȥ ڱⰡ  ΰ ϴ ̴. ֻ´ ֱ Ʈ츶 ̶ Ѵ. ֻ´ 幮 , ̰ų Ӽ,߼ .

׷, (limited amnesia) Ͼ. ǽĻ̶ ɰ ü, ɸ Ʈ츶 Ͼ. ౸ ǽĺҸ λڴ ó Ա Ͼ ° ϴ° ̴. ׷ Ŵ ݿ ǽĿ ڽ Ѱִ Դ  Ͻ 𸥴ٴ Ÿ. (Schacter), 濡 , س ϴ ʿ ϰ ִ. (brick) (path) ܾ ׳ ǽĿ Ÿ, ׳ ̰ Ű ߴ. ׳ฦ 忡 ű⼭ Ͼ° س ũ 並 ߴ(Schacter,1996, 232)

Ͻ ڰ(awareness) ̴. ̰ б ٸ ̴. Ͻ ݵ еǾ ƴϰ, ݵ Ʈ츶 ƴϴ. Ͻ ǽ ൿ ִ ȣȭ ̴. ȸܼ(Retrieval cues),  ǿ ϴ ƴ ̴. ֳϸ, κ ȣȭ ʱ ̴.

ٴϿ (Daniel Schacter) к(Endel Tulving), £  Ȯ ٸ ý ִٰ ϴ , Ȥ ý 1 ۿ ٰ ϴ ؼ Ϲ  ãƳ õ 'Ͻ' ' '̶ ߴ. ʹ ̷ ִ. ' Űп Ͻ ǽ , Ʈ ǽİ ϰ ٸ. Ʈ ؿ, ǽ Ϸ ݴϴ ο ۻ ̴ ; ̰ 츮 屸 Ư ̴.....Ͻ...ϻ , ۰ ϻ ൿ ڿ ̴.' (Schacter, 1996, 190-191)

Ҿ κ װ ȣȭ(encoding) ʾұ Ҿ ̴. (Perception) κ (filtering) հ̴. 츮 ɰ 屸 ġ, 츮 ִ ͵ κ ̷ ġ ʴ´. ׸ ̷ ƴٰ ص ̴. 幮 ƴ϶, ̶ ǥ ̴. 츮 ȴٰ ʴ´. 츮 ش ó ߻ νĵ ʾҰų Ȥ (ܱ Ȥ )Ǵ ο() ȣȭ ʾұ ̴.

(Long-term memory ) οο ġ ȣȭ 䱸ȴ. οϺΰ ջ ԰ų , ġ ȣȭ ϴ ô ƴ. Ʊ (3) ߴ޵Ǿ ִ. ̳ ڱ Ȱ Ȯϰ ϰ ִٴ ̾߱ ʴ. ׷, ȭ ϴ ϴ. ̷ ǰųȤ ġϰ ȣȭ , ׷ ִ.  , (remember)ߴٴ ڰ(aware) µ Ȳ( ũ׽þ(cryptomnesia) Ȳ) .  

ǹ(semantic), (procedural), ȭ(episodic)

ڵ ý  зϰ ִ. ǹ (semantic memory) ǿ Ѵ. (procedural memory) 츮 ο ų ϴ ϰ ش. ȭ (episodic memory) 츮 λ Ư ȸ ϰ ش(Schacter,1996,17) ߿ зμ Ѱ, (field memories) (ovserver memories) ִ. ϴ ӿ ڱ ڽ ãƳ ̴. ̶ ϴ ̴. κ ̶ Ʈ , 籸Ǿ ٴ Ÿ ̴.(Schacter, 1996, 21) 

Ȯ

Ȯ ŷڼ ΰ? ϸ, 츮 ڽ ߻ ¥ߴ 찡 ְ, ƴ ޲ٴµ , ٸ Ͻÿ ϴٴ Ÿ. , 縦 ϴ , ڿ ؼ 縦 , ڿ ̸ ڸ Ȯ ֳİ  ȵǴ ̴. , ߿ ٿ ڰ ߿ 󳽴ٸ, ڴ ڸ ϰ , װ ü ϰ ִ ƴ ϴ . 

£ ϳ ̷ο , ϸ ְ Ȯϴٰ ϴ , Ȯ ̿, ׷ 谡 Ÿ ʴ´ٴ ̴. ϰ ִ Ͱ ݴ, ָ(hypnosis) Ȯ  Ѵ. ָ¿  ڴ ص Ͻÿ ؼ, κ ָ¿ ŷ ʰ ִ.(Loftus,1979)

ٳ, Ͻÿ ¥ ϸ, ʾҴ ϴ. ص ̱ 츮 Ȯ , £ ؼ ϴ ʿ䰡 ִ. 

 ۿ(work)ϴ°?

ϱ ,  ۿϴ° 츮 Ȯ Ѵ. ̷ , ̶ ִ. ̷ 𵨿 , ̰ ׾, پ. ̷ ڿ غϱ ؼ ۿ : 1. ã° ; 2.ο ų ã° ; 3. ȿ ۿŰ, ŵ ã ̴. , 2 3 巡 ִٰ ִ. ׷, ¾ ̽Ŀ ο Ż ˹ϴ ɼ  ִ. ũ(The Salk Institute) Fred Gage, ֱ Ű ϴٰ ߴ. ׵ ڱ Ͽ 㰡 ظ(н ܱ ) κ ġ̶(dentate gyrus)κп Ű Ͽ.  Gage ٿ ̼ ظ ̽Ͽ, ̵ Ű漼 ϴ ߰Ͽ.  ϰų ϴ ȴٴ ϴ ŵ ִ. " " 츮 ؼ ̶ 巯.

Ű , ''̶ θ ampakines ī̶ ȭչ , ȿ ۿϰ ϴµ Ͽ. 迡 پ ȿ Ÿ, ǥ ʹ , ʿϴٴ йۿ .

ü ۿ̶ η Ǵ  ǹִ ϰԵȴٴ Ϳ ؼ ȸ, ü ۿ̶ ϴ 鵵, 鿡  ̴. ̶ ϴ Լ ȹ Ӹ ƴ϶, Ƿ ߰غڴٴ ִ.

: toshijun  

õ ׸ : Bridie Murphy, dianetics, hypnosis, false memory, mind, reincarnation, repressed memory, and repressed memory therapy.


б ڷ

Ashcraft, Mark H. Human Memory and Cognition (Addison-Wesley Pub Co., 1994).

Baddeley, Alan D. Human Memory: Theory and Practice (Allyn & Bacon, 1998).

Baker, Robert A. Hidden Memories: Voices and Visions From Within (Buffalo, N.Y. : Prometheus Books, 1992).

Kandel, Eric R. & James H. Schwartz, eds. Principles of Neural Science 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing, 2000).

Loftus, Elizabeth F. Memory, Surprising New Insights Into How We Remember and Why We Forget (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1980).

Loftus, Elizabeth F. Eyewitness Testimony (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1979).

Loftus, Elizabeth and Katherine Ketcham. Witness for the Defense : The Accused, the Eyewitness, and the Expert Who Puts Memory on Trial (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991).

Pinker, Steven. How the Mind Works (W.W. Norton & Company, 1999).

Schacter, Daniel L., editor, Memory Distortion: How Minds, Brains, and Societies Reconstruct the Past (harvard University Press, 1997).

Schacter, Daniel L. Searching for Memory - the brain, the mind, and the past (New York: Basic Books, 1996).

Schacter, Daniel L. The Seven Sins of Memory : How the Mind Forgets and Remembers (Houghton Mifflin Co., 2001).

Tavris, Carol. "Hysteria and the incest-survivor machine," Sacramento Bee, Forum section, January 17, 1993.

Copyright 1998
Robert Todd Carroll

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Last updated 12/01/98

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