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Robert Todd Carroll

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iridology, ȫä,

eyball.jpg (17855 bytes)ȫä ȫä ϴ ̴. ȫä, ü ȫä Ư κп ϰ, ü ʾƵ ȫä 縸 غ, ǰ ׷ ִ ƴ ִٰ ϴ ϱ ٰϰ ִ. ȫä ǻ簡 ƴ϶, ڿ, ī̷, , Ǵ ħġ Ѵ.

ǻ ȫä Ϻ̰ ϰ ִٰ Ѵ. ȫä ִ κ ü ؼ   κ ༺ Ǿִ. ü Ƽ Ѵ. û ϰ ̰ ýŰ ڱϰ ð ̹ Ű濡 Ͽ ޵ȴ. ǻ õ ̶ ص  Ÿٰ ϰ ִ. ȫä(iris) ȭ ׸ ſ ̶ ˰ ſ ־ Ѵ.

ȫä 19 밡 ܰǻ ̱׳ ü(Ignatz von Peczely) ߸ ̴. ü, װ ġϰ ִ ü ٸ η߷ȴ û ο ϴٴ , Ǹ ƴ.

ȫä ο ġߴ. Ž ߴ. ü ȯڵ 缺 Ͽ ߴ.

ٸ ȶ ϼ״. ð ó . ȯ ¸ ˰ , Ͽ ¸ ʿ䵵 , 󼱿  ʿ. , ſ ʿ ȫä 2 30 ϰ ȫä 9 30 ġ ϸ Ǵ ̴. Ż, fleck, ٹ̸ ϰԸ ȴ. (vagina) Ͻ ȯ 5 ġ ϸ ȴ. ̷ ̴. ȫä, ȫä, Ȯ, ׸ ķø ִٸ ٸ ʿ ʴ.

ȫä ϴ ޹ħ  ִ°? . ׷,  ü ̰ ϴ ΰ? ü ߷ ȫäܿ ͵̶,  ׳ ٸ ȫäܻ Ÿ ¡ ü ãµ ־ ڱ ⸸ٰ̾ ִ.

׵ "marking" "" ϰ , ̵ ָ Ѵ. , Ȯϰ ϰ ܵ ʴ´. ϰ ΰ谡 Ÿ ʴ , ȫäܻ marking 踦 ߰Ͽ ȫä ´ٰ ְ ִ. Ϻ Ȯ 𸥴. ͵ ǽҹ ͸̴. װ ׵ marking ؼ ġ Ȯؼϱ ̴. ׵ ǻ ƹ Ϳ ãƳ. ׵ ڷḦ ߸ ؼϰ, ׵ 뿡 ؼ ġ Ը Ǿְ ɼ ϰų ʴ´. ׵ κ, ڱ ʾҴ. 츮, ׵ ȯڿ Ͽ Ͻ ߴ ִ . Ƹ Ʋ ̾ ´ ƴ Ȯϱ ׽Ʈ ʾҴ. ߿ ùٸ ͵ , ȫäܻ Ÿ ¡ ̿ ٸ ϰ ϰ ִ 𸥴. ׵ ʴ , ְ, Ͱ˹ ϰ, ϰ ǰ, ݺ ǰ, ̴. ׵ ڽ 忡 Ͽ ϰ , ȫäܹ ȿ,ȿĸ ѹ ḻ ̴. ڱ ⸸ ٸ ʿ ݻ reflexology ħ ear acupuncture ִ.

, ° ̿ܿ ȯ μ ϴٰ ؼ ȵȴ. ϴ ȫäܿ ϴ Ͱ ٸ ̴. ȫä ̷ ƴ϶, ü ⿡ ϴ κ ְ, ´ Ư ġ ϸ ִٰ ϴ ̴. Ȱdz ˾Ȼ, ϰ õ ǰ ˾Ƴ ̴. ִٰ ǽɵǸ, ̷ ǻ Ȯ ˻縦 ް ϱ ؼ ȯڸ ׿ ǿ Ұ ش.

ȫä õ ⹦  ȫä ٸ , ĺġ ȴٴ , ٸ , ü ° ȭϸ ȫä ȭѴٴ ̴. ̰ ȫä Һ̸鼭 ׻ ȭ ϰ Ѵ. ġ ĸ޴ϵ Ŭ佺 谡 ź ̷ .

õ ׸ : acupuncture, ad hoc hypothesis, alternative health practicescold reading, communal reinforcement, Ȯ, control study, Occam's razor, , the placebo effect, the post hoc fallacy, reflexology, selective thinking, subjective validation, testimonials  and wishful thinking.


б ڷ

Barrett, Stephen and William T. Jarvis. eds. The Health Robbers: A Close Look at Quackery in America, (Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1993).

Frazier, Kendrick. editor "Iridology: Diagnosis Or Delusion?" in Science Confronts the Paranormal (Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1986).

Gilovich, Thomas. How We Know What Isn't So: The Fallibility of Human Reason in Everyday Life (New York: The Free Press, 1993).

Hines, Terence. "Iridology," in Pseudoscience and the Paranormal (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1990).

Gardner, Martin. "Medical Cults/Quacks," in Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1957).

Raso, Jack. "Alternative" Healthcare: A Comprehensive Guide (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1994).

Worrall, Russell S. "Iridology: Diagnosis or Delusion?" in Science Confronts the Paranormal, edited by Kendrick Frazier. (Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books,1986).

Copyright 1998
Robert Todd Carroll

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