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Robert Todd Carroll

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Werner Erhard and est

"In life, understanding is the booby prize." -- Werner Erhard

ϵ Ʈ (est)[ϵ ̳ Ʈ̴ ̸, ƾ it is ǹ̵ ȴ.] ΰ ¿ ߿ ϳ. Ʈ ɸڵ ϴ Large Group Awareness Training program ϳ̴.

ó est ̳ 1971 ý Jack Tar ȣڿ 1,000 Ͽ. 1991⿡ ϵ尡 μ ̱ 鼭 ̳ ߴܵDZ 70 Ʈ̴ ߻ȴ[Faltermayer]. ״ est Landmark Forum â ڵ鿡 Ⱦ ȴ. ϵ ظ ״ Landmark Education Corp. ȸ 5õ Ǹ, 30 Ѵ. LEC δ est , ýڿ 11 42 ΰ ִ. и, ϵ LEC  ʰ ִ.

ϵ Ʈ 鿡 It ֵ Ʒϴ ˷. It, å ̰, ̸ communicator ˶ ̴. ϵ尡 (Bay Area) 縮(Sausalito) ִ ְſ 迡 ұԸ ׷쿡 (zen) ġ ־. Ʈ ϵ嵵 鿡 "It " ƴ. ׷ Ʈ κ ħ å ϰ ̳ Ը ߴ. ϵ å ġ ʾҰ ū ȣ ȸ忡 ѹ ƴ. ( ʸ α׷ ؼ ϴ. α׷ и پϴ. ׷쿡 ߸̶ ص ٸ ׷쿡 ׷ ִ. Ʈ 迡 ؼ ڵ  鿡Դ ϴ Ȯϰ,  κ Ʋ ִٴ ؾ Ѵ. )

est κ (zen Master) ٹ ޾Ƶ ̰͵ ̰, ̰, ̰, ̾ ( ̾߱ ϳ, ڿ  ̾߱Ⱑ ִ. ڰ  Ͽ, ׸ ȴ. ݴ ص, ¾Ҵ. ( : Ƹ ̾߱ ̾߱Ⱑ ƴѰ ˴ϴ. ִ "óԿ 縦 и" å ñ ٶϴ.). ڵ ̷ Ʈ̴ Ư д̶ , Ϻ ׵鿡 䱸Ǵ Ʒ ſ ̴. est Ʒÿ ̷ д ٷ 汤 ϴ ̴. ׷  "ȭ ִ ð ðǥ ־ٰ Ѵ. ȭ ؼ ִ. ( δ ̰ Ȯϱ ؼ ȭ ڷᰡ ʿϰų ϰ ϴ ʿ ̴.)  濡 ־߸ Ѵٰ ʴ´. " (). (est Ʈ̴ , Ʈ ̳(Burt Reynolds) ( : Ű ӽ ΰ) ũ ũ۽(Kris Kristoferson) ( : Ÿź ΰ) ϴ ȭ "Semi-Tough" (1978) ߿ ȭǾ ´.) ( : Ϻ 캸 No-Piss Ʈ̴ ϴ. ̰ ó ־ٰ , ƴٰ ϴ õ ٷ ڱ ڽǷ ڱ ڽ õ ϴ ƷѴٰ մϴ.)

ϵ ̾

1960 , ϵ ̾緯(Scientology) , L. Ϲٵ(L. Ron. Hubbard)κ ū ޾Ҵ. ϵ尡 Ϲٵκ ֿ ļ est ־ٰ, ̾緯Ʈ ׸ Ѵ. Ϲٵ尡 ̾Ƴƽ(dianetics) ̾緯 ȸ ó, ϵ嵵 est ȸ ͵ ϰ ־ ˷ ִ. ׷, ϵ 忡 ø ؼ, ȸ縦 ߴ ̴.

ϵ ڵ, IRS ̳, ̵κ ģ󰣿 ߵ ϵ ſ ߽Ű õ ڿ, ̾緯 ־ٰ  ߴ. ϵ IRS Ҽۿ ̰, ģ Ƹ ġ ߵ   ̾ ̴. ϵ ̾緯Ʈ ׸ ̱ ؼ ûξڸ ߴٶ ϰ , װ ִ   Ƹ ƹ ׸ ̷ ʾҴٴ ̴.

est ̾Ƴƽ ƴϴ.

׷, est ̾Ƴƽ ̾緯 ״ ʾҴ. est ⵿ ü ߷ ö ̸ ⵿ϵ ö, ο ɸ, (Maxwell Maltz) -̹ƽ(Psycho-cybernetics), ұ, ˶ , ̵, ̺ ο(Abraham Maslow), L. Ϲٵ, α, īױ(Dale Carnegie), Ʈ (Norman Vincent Peale)( : 'ų '̶ ۰), P.T.ٳ(P. T. Barnum), ׸ ޼ Ȯǰ ִ 'ΰ ' ߿ Ǿ ٰ ϵ尡 ͵ Եȴ. ϵ尡 ڽ α׷ , õ ޷ 鿡 ߴ ̾?  ״ " "  ǽ ο ½ų ߴ. ϰ ϸ, ״ Ư شٴ ̴. ״ ó ǽ Ͽ 츮 ׷ α׷ ִٰ ̴. ׸ ϴ ǽ ȹٷ Ǹ, λ ų ּ ݰ ޶ ̴. ׵ ̰ θ Ʈ Ƿ ĿǮ, ڽŰ ġ ̴. ݱʹ ޸ ȹ ٸ 繰 ̴. ƹ͵ ٲ ʰ ٲ ̴. ( ڿ ߴ). ׵ ƹ͵ ̸ α׷̳ ǽ ʾƼ ݱ λ ־ Ͱ ȸ ٽ ̴. est ؼ, Ӱ Ǹ, ŵ쳯 ִ ̴! Ѱ ӿ ִ. ϱ⸸ Ѵ. ΰ 籸ϰ, ѾƳ, ٸ ϴ ߰ 繰 ޾Ƶ̴ .

ϵ

ϵ Ʈ̴ ޾Ҵ°? ״ Ͽ. δ ⼺ ִ ƴϰ ̾. 1960 , ״ (John Rosenberg), 25 ȥϰ ̵ ־. и λ ʾ, ִ Ը ڱ ̳ , ٸ ڰ ׷ϵ ڽ Ǿ. ׸ ʶǾƸ , Ʈ ̽ , ̸ ٲٰ Ⱦġ. ⵶( θ ׿ ȸ ħʸ ް ־. ( : Ĵ epicospal church Դϴ. methodist churchԴϴ.) ڽſ ̸ ̴ ڱ ü ȮϷ 𸣰ڴ. (: ڼ ˾ƺ ؼ Ϻ 캻 ѽ ϵ(Werner Hans Erhard) ̸, (Werner Heisenberg) ѽ (Hanns Lilje) ֱ ϸƮ(Ludwig Erhard) ̶ Ѵ.). ׷, ȭ(transformation) ִ  װ ޾Ҵٰ ϴ å̴. Ʋ III " ϵ : ΰ ȭ" ϵ " ǹ̾ " ؼ Ҹ "Think and Grow Rich" ޾Ҵٰ Ѵ.

3 ⺻ Ģ . : ̵ Ѵ. ȹ õ ҷ Ų. ϴ ̴. ϶, ٶ ϰ ̴.

, ðȭϸ, ģ ϶ ϰ ִ. ſ ϰ , ̰͵ ſ ָϰ, ü ƴϴ. ̷ , ڽ ̳ ڽ ؾ Ǹ ϴ 鿡Դ ƹ͵ ִ .  ̿ ʾҴ , ִ. , ̶ ϴ ׻ ϶ ִٰ . 2Ⱓ ƹ͵ ߾, 鸸 , ο ߵȴٰ ؾ߸ Ѵ. Ȱ ִ ǰ ؼ ƹ͵ ص ǰ Ī ȵȴ. ̾ и ص ڱ ڽſ ϸ鼭 ڱ ū س´ٰ ؾ߸ Ѵ. ϰ, ų ϰ ̾ Ѵ. Ƹ ϱ ؼ ޹ ڽ ʿ䰡 𸥴. ̷ Ϳ  ĻǾ ְ ׶ ߱ ƹ ã 𸥴.

ϵ忡 ߿ ģ ٸ ϳ, ƽ "Psyco-cybernetics"̴. ϵ ڽ ̹ и ̾, ڱ ָ Ư ϴ ޾Ҵ. ϵ شб ؼ ϸ鼭 ǸŸ ϱ ؼ ⿡ ο ̵ ο ھƸ ߰Ͽ. ָ鿡 ̴ ϵ α׷ְ α׷ֿ ߾. ̵ ǥϴ  ʿϰ ٷ ̵  ʵǴ ƴϾ. װ ⺻ ̶ , 츮 α׷ Ǿ ִٴ ̾. , ǽ ¿ 츮 ָ ɾ װ ߻Ųٴ ̴. ǽ߿ 츮 ڱ ڽ ϰ ϴ ̳ ų ִܳ´ٴ ̴. ׷Ƿ ̷ ͵ ְ ̰ ִ ų̳ ٲپ Ʈ̴. ׷, ٽ ̷ ſ ָϿ ̰ ϴ  򰡵 ̴.

ýڿ , ϵ, ׷Ʈ Ͻ(Great Books) θ(Parent) Ǹϰų  ϴ ϴ ϰ ־. ιƮ ϵ׷κ(Robert Hardgrove) ׿ ƺ ο Į Ұ ڷ ״  Ϻΰ Ǿ. ڳ ǰ ƴ϶, ǰϰ, ູϰ, ϸ, 鿡 Ͽٴ ο ״ ſ Ư 翴. ΰ  ٷ ϰ Ǹ, ϵ  ٴڿ ְ Ǿ.

õ ׸ :   firewalking, Landmark Forum, Large Group Awareness Training programs and neurolinguistic programming.


б ڷ

reader comments

Ankerberg, John and John Weldon. Encyclopedia of New Age Beliefs (Harvest House Publishers, Inc., 1996).

Barry, Dave.  "Altered States"  in The Miami Herald, April 13, 1997. (Humorist Dave Barry takes Peter Lowe's SUCCESS 1997 12-hour success seminar featuring Anthony Robbins, Elizabeth Dole, Rabbi Harold Kushner, Brian Tracy,  Lou Holtz, Jim Morris, Peter Lowe, Pat Riley, Dr. Ted Broer, George Bush, and Dan Kennedy.)

Pressman, Steven. Outrageous Betrayal: The Dark Journey of Werner Erhard From est to Exile, (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993).

Copyright 1999
Robert Todd Carroll

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