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Robert Todd Carroll

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argument from design,

̶ (God) "" ϳ̴. ϸ, 󿡴 â Ƹٿ ֱ ִ ڳ âڰ ִٴ ߷̴. ϱ ؼ ο 䱸Ѵ. âְ ִٴ ϱ ؼ ְ ȭӰ Ǿٰ ϴ ̴. ݴ Ÿ Ѵ. ֿ Ƹٿ ִ ٽ ͵ ̴. ü ڼ ؾ ϰ, ڴ ʾƵ ̴. , ¾ Ż, Ȥ 뽺 Ű漶(neurofibromatosis) ɸ , ¾ Ʒ Ȱϰ Ƿ̳ ڴ ̴. ȭ ȭϰ, ⿡ Ͼ, dz̳ ȸٶ Ϸ翡 õ ںϰ ۾ . ̷ ͵ ϴٰ ϴ ߸̶, ŷڴ ˾(moral evil)̳ ڿ ؾ(physical evil)̶ ΰ? (, evil moral evil physical evil еǸ moral evil ǵ ˾ Ű , ϸ physical evil ڿ ظ Ű , , , , Ѵ.) ڵ ̷ ͵ ⿣ ϰ , ȹ 츮 𸣱 , ̷ ͵ δ 󸶳 Ƹٿ ٰ Ѵ. ̷ ڰ ̴. 츮 ̰ ׷ ̶ ٸ, 츮 ̰, ̰ų .

ϸ (Paley's argument)

 δ ð ߰ ִ. Carlisle ֱ ϸ(1743-1805), ڿ (Natural Theology, 1802) ϰ ִ. 

    Ȳ߸ Ȱ ִ , ߿ ɷȰ,  ؼ ű⿡ ִ ϱϰ ϰ Ǿٰ غ. Ƹ ó . װ ξ ű⿡ õ ִ ͵̶ ̰ ߸Ǿٰ ϱ ̴. ׷, ð谡 1 ִ ,  ð谡 ű⿡ ־ ޾Ҵٰ ϸ, ̹ ð谡 ű⿡ ־ٴ 亯 . 

׿ ϸ Ƶ ð谡 ű ־ٰ , ð  "" ǰ ̷ ̶ ̴. "ð " ,  Ƶ Ư ǰ ƴ ̴.

ο (Darrow's response)

, Ŭη ο찡 ߴ ó, ϸ ϴ ͵ ϴ. ð Ȱ ϰ ִ ֱ ̴. , 츮 𸣴  ϰ Ǿ ִٰ ݷ ִ.  "ϰ , ... ð , ̴" װ ̸ ð谡 ̷ο ϴ ƴϴ. ϸ ð,  Ͽ â ̴. ð âڸ Ͻϰ ִ. ϸ ϱ ð谡 ٸ ð ڼ̶ ص پ ʴ´ٰ ߴ.  츮 ʴ½ð谡, ȿ ִ ī ̶ ʴ´. ð ΰ, ġ κ ϰ, ׵ ־ 繫 ϰ, ׵ , ۵, ȣ ϰ, ϳϳ ǰ ̰ ٸ ͵ Ǽ ȴٰ ϱ ƴ. (ּ : Ŭη ο ̱ 1920 ߽ ǿ ȭ ȣ翴.)

ϸ ؼ Ѵ. "ð迡 ִ 巯 , ڿ ȿ ڿ ð Ѵٸ ξ Ŵϰ, ⼺ Ƹ ." ̰ ڿ迡 âڰ ־ ֿ Ŵ Ŀ ӿ Ʋٰ ûϰ ִ ̴. ο쿡 ϸ, "û" δ ̴.

    谡 ִٰ ϱ ؼ, Ե ʾҴٴ ִ ³ ־ Ѵ. 츮 Ͱ ְ ̰ ڽ̴. ׷ 츮 ָ ϰ ̰ ִٰ Ѵ. ְ  ؼ ٰ ϴ ְ ָ ٴ ̴. ̰ ǹ ̴. *

ȷ ְ ̰ų ִٰ "" Ұϴٴ ̴. ̿ؼ Ҷ, Ư¡ Ư¡̾ Ѵ. 񱳵Ǵ Ѱ() ߿ Ư¡( ) ϰ ִٸ, ̷ .

(Hume's argument)

ٸ ö ̺ (1711-1776) ̸ 輳 ߸ , ڿ ȭ (Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion) ߴ. ι ѻ Ƿ, ", 谡 ΰ ǰ ƴϰ, Ŵ ̳ Ĺ ϴٸ, װ âǰ κٴ Ĺ ϴ ο ̰, ̼ 躸ٴ, ̳ Ĺ ̴. ( )" ߴ. Ƿ ؼ " и, ð質 ⺸ٵ ̳ Ĺ ϴ. Ƹ, ̳ Ĺ ? ̳ Ĺ , ̳ ϰ ϴ Ϳ ִ. ̳ Ѱ ϴ Ͱ ̶ ִ. " ϰ ִ. и ߸ ϰ ִ.

ð Ȳ̸ ð踦 ֿ ̸  ̸ ° ȴٸ ȮŽų . ̰ ˰ ְ ϴ ֿ ȭ ̷ ִ. , ð踦 AIDS ȴٰų, Ȥ ڼ ȴٸ, ð ֿ ϰ, 踦 ޹ħѴٰ ̴.

ϰ

, ࿡ ݸ ޶ Ȥ ̶ ϴ Ϲ̰ θ ˷ ڿ ֽϴ. ࿡ Ҵٸ 츮 ʾ Դϴ.

  • ¾ ݸ ָ ְų Ȥ ,
  • ణ ޶ٸ
  • ݸ ũų Ȥ ݸ ְų 
  • ߷ ̷ ƴϾ
  • DNA ʾҾ
  • ڵ ũų ۾Ҿ
  • 츮 ¾迡 60 ༺ ־
  • źҰ ʾҾ
  • ݺ ̾
  • ̰ Ͼ ʾҾ
  • ȸ 1/10̾

Դٰ, ¡ǥ鵵 ,

  • , , , ,հ ٰ ٽ ڽŵ ¾ ڶ ȸϿ  ִ.
  • ִ ΰ ̼
  • ڿ °

̰ .  ͵ ޶ٸ ٸ Ǿ ̴. , ׵ ٸ ʾҴ, ü ΰ? ¾ ༺ ü ̻ ̴. ̹ ٸ ༺ ü Ѵ. ̷ 踦 ϴ ΰ? ִ ƹ͵ . ݱ ؿ, ε ̴. ƹ͵ ϰ ̴. ׷ٸ, ̰ Ȥ ϴ ΰ? ִ ƹ͵ . 츮 鸸 ߻ ʾҴٸ, 츮 ٴ . ׷ ٴ ΰ? ̷ ڵ ſ ʾ ̷ ̴. ü ð ־, ̷  ñ⿡  ü ñⰡ ̴. ʾҴ ð ־ ̷ ̴. ̷ 踦 ϴ°? ׷ ʴ. ü ʼ ϴ ༺ . ̷ 踦 ϴ°? ׷ ʴ. ̷ Ȳ 쿬 Ͼ ϰ Ȯ ʾ ʾ 1̶ 𸥴. 츮 ֱ Ȯ 100% ̴. ũ 𸮽(Cressy Morrison) Ѷ ߴ.

10 1 10 ڸ ָӴϿ . ׸ , 1 10 غ ϴ ϳ ٽ ְ Ѵ. ù ° ڰ 1 ɼ 1/10̴. ׸ 1 2 Ȯ 1/100̰, 1,2,3 Ȯ 1/1000̸, ̷ Ĵ ӵǸ 1 10 Ȯ 1/100 ̶ Ӿ ڰ ȴ.

, ü ϱ ؼ ʿ Ȯ ǵ 쿬  踦 ϴ ʴ. α ѽð 1000 ӵ ȸѴ. ̰ ѽð 100 ӵ ȸѴٸ ݺ 10 ̸, ߰ſ ¾ 츮 Ļ() ¿ ̰ 㿡  Ƴ ̴.  

𸮽 ο . ü ִ ٷ ⿡ ִ. ϰ ִ Ȯ 1/1 ̴. ¶ų, 200⵿ 10 ָӴϿ Ȯ ѹ ̶̻ ſ ̴.

׷, ġ ִµ, Ͼ ʴ´ٴ ݹϷ ָ °?

... ̶  Ű Ǿ߸ ϴ ƴϴ. 13 ī ̷ 긴 ,  Ư а Ȯ 6õ 1 ̸̴. ׷,  а Ȯ 6000 1̶ ؼ, װ ϰ, տ а Ȯ Ұϱ տ а ʾҴٰ ͹ ̴. --John Allen Paulos, Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and its Consequences

° "animal wisdom"̶ Ҹ Ϳ ڿ̰, ִ°? ̴. ̰ ʾҴٴ ִ°? װ ƴϴ.  絵 踦 . ΰ 縦 ν ִ ɷ ִ ΰ ̼ ϱ ؼ ִٰ ؾ߸ ϴ°? ƴϴ. ̰ ٴ ǹϴ°? ̰͵ ƴϴ. ׷, ̰ ο 䱸ϴ ʴ´ٴ ǹѴ. ̷ ϱ ؼ 踦 ؾ߸ Ѵ.

λ ǹ

ŷڵ ־߸ λ ǹ̰ ִٰ Ѵ. ׷ٸ ŷڴ, ʴ´ٸ , ־߸ ǹ̰ ִٴ ŭ , ƴϸ ּ ŭ ǹִٰ̰ ϴ ϱ? Ϻϰ ̴ ְ ŷڿԴ, ڿ̰ ΰ ؼ Ǵ ׸ īθ ̴°?

 ŷڴ ֿ ׿ ؼ ˷ ٶ󺸰, Ϻ Ǵ ͵ ٶ󺸸鼭 谡 ҿϴٰ Ѵ. ׵ ſ , ̵ ̿ ſ 콺ν 鼭 ̷ ʾ ̶ ϰ ȴ. ߵ ʾ ð ־µ ̺ ְڴ°? ֿ ȿ ִ κ ؼ ܼϰ ȿ 踦 ̴. ſ ϰ Ÿ Ÿ Ŭη ο찡 ó, 谡 ƴ϶ Ư ʴ ڿ ̷ٴ Ÿ. ̸ ؼ Ŭ ִ, ׷ ̷ δ Ŭ ġ̴. ༺ ¾ ˵ ġ ϰ , ༺, , ׸ ༺ 浹ϴ ϰ () â ̻ ձ̴. ǰ Ʊ ȯ , Ͽ, ֵ, Ȥ ڿ  ""  ھַο ǹ̾ ̰ Ѵ. ŷڵ 200Ŀ ִ 鼭 ̷ Ⱬ ϰ Ͻ ٰ Ѵ. ׷, ȯڿ ׳ θ ǻ簡 Ͽ ׳ ֵ ̶ Ѵ. ׵ ڽ , װ ̶ ŷѴ. ׵ ̷ ִ ϰ ֱ ̶ Ӱ ֱ⵵ ϴ. ŷڵ ̷ ոȭ "ӽù "̶ Ѵ.

տ ŷڵ ۿ ؼ ŷڵ ϴٰ Ѵ. ΰ Ϻ̳ 信 ѵ ʴ´. 츮 ⿣, ʰ, ȿ ̰ ҿϰ ̴ ͵ ⿣ 𸥴. ׷, ̷ ոȭ ޾Ƶδٸ, 츮 ſ ؼ . ּ , ΰ ߿ ո̸, ɷִ ־ Ѵٰ Ѵ. , ̷ ̰ Ѵٸ, ׷ "Ϻ"̶ ſ ϴ ǹ̰ .  ٺ ̶,  ϵ Ͼ ִ.  ͵ , 쿡   ִ.

õ ׸ : atheism, God and intelligent design.

* "The Delusion of Design and Purpose," Clarence Darrow, from The Story of My Life (New York: Scribner and Sons, 1932), cited in Philosophy and Contemporary Issues, 6th ed., edited by John R. Burr and Milton Goldinger (New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., 1992), pp. 123-130. 


б ڷ

reader comments

Dawkins, Richard. The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe Without Design (W W Norton & Co, 1988).

Dawkins, Richard. Climbing Mount Improbable (New York: W.W. Norton, 1996).

Stenger, Victor J. Not by Design - The Origin of the Universe (Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1995).

Stenger, Victor J. The Unconscious Quantum - Metaphysics in Modern Physics and Cosmology (Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1995).

Copyright 1998
Robert Todd Carroll

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Last updated 10/30/98

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