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Robert Todd Carroll

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Stephen Jay Gould: Darwin's Revolution In Thought (video)

Blueprints : Solving the Mystery of Evolution by Maitland A. Edey and Donald C. Johanson

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Creationists and Creation Science, âڵ â

Militant fundamentalist Christianity has an answer for everything except bigotry and ignorance.

...the evolution of the cosmos is more than just "compatible" with theism. Faith in a God of self-giving love...anticipates an evolving universe.* John F. Haught

Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. ÿ콺 ܽŰ (1973)

â ̻ ̷̴. ̰ ̷ ̴ϴ. ϸ, â  Ư ͸ Ǵ ƴϴ. ̰ ܼ âֿ ʿ Ѵ. 鸸 ⵶ε ⵶ε ֿ âְ ִٰ ϰ ȭ ̷е Ű ʴ´. ׷ γ ̰, , ι彼, ι ٺ ⵶ε â̶ ̸ 翡 ͼ ٺ ⵶ε (a) â ֿ ſ Ȯϸ (b) â ̷ ȭа 縳 ٴ Ѵٴ ʰ â ϱⰡ ƴ. ׷Ƿ, Ϲ âڵ̶ ϸ â âⰡ ϴ ״ , ƴ ̺, 6ϰ â ƴ ޾Ƶ̴ ⵶ε ϰ Ǿ.

â̶ ܾ âڵ ׵ ϴ âⰡ Ѵٴ ϱ ϴ ̴ܾ. бó д´ٸ ̷ ȭа ǰ ȴ. "â" ̵ ̷ Ʋ ̰ ̷ ϴ ڵ ü ؼ ̶ Ѵ.

â ֿ ѻ ٷ Institute for Creation Research T. ⽬ ״ ȭ ǰ ؼ Ƿϰ ִ. ⽬ Evolution, the Challenge of the Fossil Record ( San Diego, Calif.: Creation-Life Publishers, 1985) and Evolution, the Fossils Say No (San Diego, Calif.: Creation-Life Publishers, 1978) ̴. ٸ Center for Scientific Creationism ִ. ⽬ δ ǰ ̷ ̸ ϴ δ. ׵ ū Ҹ ȭ ܼ ̷̸ װ Ʋȴٰ Ѵ. ̷ Ȥ ƴϴ. װ ̴. ٸ ȭϴ а 99.99% Ƿ Ѵ.  ȭߴ° ȭ(̷) ؾ κ̴.

 ȭ ̷° ̷ ڿü þ. ̷̶ ȭ ̶ ǰ  и ٸ. ٸ ڵ ȭ ٸ ̷ ִ. ׷ ؼҼ ȭ ̴. ⽬ װ ȭ Ǽ ؼ ϴ ƴϴ. ״ (fact) ̷п ̰ . װ , ϴ ̴ Ϳ ؼ ž Ű ȣ(apologetics)̴. ̴. (׵, ŵ ȭ ʴ´ٴ ̱ ؼ Ѵ.)

âڵ п ȮǼ ߸ ϹǷ ȭڵ ȭ ؼ ϴ ȭ  ̷̶ ŷ ´. ̿ʹ ݴ ڵ ȮǼ ʿ κ ܼ ̴. ׵ ٺڵ ǰϰ ڱ Ѵ. ȭ (Stephen Jay Gould) "ִ ̵ ٷ, װ͵ Ͻϴ 캸, ο ִٴ ſѴ." ׷, ȭп ϴ ڵ ȭ Ͼ ʾҴٰ ʴ ̴. "츮 װ  Ͼ° ؼ Ѵ" ϰ ִ. (1983, p. 256).

"â" ̺

â ٸ 鿡 ƴϰ ̸̺ ⵶ ٺڵ Ϻο ϰ Ǿ ִ. κ ⵶ ڵ, ٺڵ̰ų ƴϰų, â  ̴. âڵ â Ȯϰ ٲ ̶ Ѵ. ̵ ʿ  ٰ Ѵ. ̵ Ϲ âڵ ٸ  ǹѴٰ ؼǸ ٸ  ŵ ؼ ٲ ٴ ̴. Ŵ Ǿ߸ Ѵ.

̷ µ, 17 âڵ ᱹ ߽ ƴϰ ¾ ༺ ƴ϶ Ͱ غ. ׵ Ʋȴٰ ʰ ΰ ؼ Ʋȴٰ ߴ. ó âڵ ׵ 濡 ؼ Ʋ ִٴ ϴ .

âڵ ڷδ ʴµ װ ׵ ؼ Ʋ ٰ ϱ ̴. ׵ ڽŵ ð Ѵ. ׷Ƿ ׵ ؼ ٸ Ű Ű ߸̶ Ѵ. ׵ ؾ Ѱ ϴ ̴. âڵ ׵ ̷ ʿ䰡 . װ â Ͻ ̱ ̴.  ̷ Ȯϴٸ ׽Ʈ , Ư¡  ׽Ʈ ִٴ ̴. Ʋ ٴ Ư¡ ƴ϶ ̺ Ư¡̴.

âڵ  е ٴ 巯 ٷ ׵ ȭ õ ݵǴ ̶  ͸ ̶ Ⲩ ׸ ޾Ƶ̴ Ϳ 巯. Ư ΰ Ҵ ϴ  ŵ âڵ ̸ ȯѴ. 

"â" κ

â ̷ ̷ ̴. ֳϸ ̰ Ұϱ ̴. " ˰ ִ  ȭ ؼ ̰ ִ ̳ ִ. ׷ âڵ ׵ ų ϰ ִ  ڷᵵ . й ʴ ý ׸ ƴϴ." ϰ ִ. (Gould, 1983).

â ̺ ̷ ʼ Ư¡ ġ ʾҾ װ Ϸ ϱ ̴. â ̷μ ٲ ʰ ̴. ̰ ⺻ ī ؼ ڵ ̿  ﵵ Ű ̴. ̰ ̷ ִ    ̴. ̰ ޾Ƶ鿩 ̰, ̰ (a priori) ̰ ִ  ŵ ٰ ̴.

âڵ Ǹ ġ 2 Ģ ȵ ̸, ⸸ ߸ ؼ Ǹ . ׷ ׵ ̼ ܼ ׵ ɷ ڶ ̹Ƿ ׵ ϴٰ ϴ ִ.

׷ и ̷ ʰ ٴ ش. ٸ ׾ƿø ƴϴ. װͺٴ, ̷ȭϰ, ϰ, ϰ, ϰ, ϰ üϰ, Ӱ ̷ȭϰ Ӱ ϴ ̴. õ ̷ ſ ߸´´. ׷ (anomailes) Ÿ. ( ̷а ʴ ο ǵ ߰ߵȴ.) ׸ ο ̷ ȵǰ ñδ κ̰ų Ȥ ̷ ٲپġ ȴ.

ڵ ൿϰų ൿϰų Ȥ 쵵 ִ. ׷, 翡 ¥̳ Ȥ ̺ ߰ߵȴٰ ؼ Ȥ ݴ ̺п ڽ õ簡 ִٰ ؼ а ̺ ٴ ǹϴ ƴϴ.

Ͼ ޹ħ DZ ̺ ߰ߵǰ Ǽ Ǹ ᱹ ϰ ãƳ. ̷ ͵ âа ̺п Ͼ µ װ Ǽ ãƳ ĥ ִ ̴.

âа ̷ ε . ̰ ȣ ̰ų ߸ ̶ ׵ ̷п յȴ. ̷е, װͿ  ζ Ʋ ãƳ ִ. ַа ַ ׽Ʈ ȴ. ̻ ̷ Ư âа ü ڱ ϰ Ƿ  ͵ ϰ ʴ.  ̷е ׷ Ϻ .

̷μ â

׷ Ϻ ü鿡 ؼ ޾Ƶ鿩 ̷ ̴. ̷ 谡 4004⿡ âǾٰ Ͽ, ʾ Ǿٴ Ű ſ ؼ Ѵٸ ̷ ȴ. ׷ 4004⿡ â ŵ ̺ ξ ־ ̰ âߴ(Ƹ ̱ žӽ ϰų Ȥ ٸ ź ȹ ) ӽù ٸ ̰ ƴ϶ ̴̻.  ͵ ̰ ȴ. ̰ ƴ . ʸ  ̷ 1857⿡ Ⱓ "Creation (Omphalos): An Attempt to Untie the Geological Knot " ߴ.

̳ ̰ Ʋٰ ϰ, ̷ Ǵٰ ϸ, ̷п ° ̸ ٸ, װ ̻ ƴϴ.  ̷е ̷̷ ;߸ Ѵٰ ž ̸ Ǵؼ ȴ. žӽ ַڵ ʾ ƴ϶ ٴ ""׽Ʈ ٰؼ Ϸ, âڵ ǥ Ǵ ̳ ȭ ߸̶ Ͽ Ѵ. ׷ ʴٸ ̼ ̶ ü ߸Ǿٴ ޾Ƶ̷ ̴. ׷ ⽬ ׷ ϰ ִ. а κе װ ϴ Ű Ѵٸ װ ٴ и Ų.

̺ žӽɱ ַڵ ׵ ̸ ´ٰ ϴ ̷п ߷ õ ƴϴ. ̷ ڵ鵵 ׷ ִ ΰ ̱⵵ ϴ. âڵ , ̹ ˷ ã ʿٴ, ׵ ų̶ ϴ. âڵ鿡 ؼ ְų, ϰ ų Ȥ ִ ͵ ƴϴ. âڵ鿡 Ű ȣϱ ϴ 鿡Ը ־ ȴ.

̻ âڵ

ַڵ߿ â⿡ ؼ ־ ׵ ų ̶ ʴ ڵ鵵 . ׵ м ޾Ƶ ʿ ٰ ϴ´. ׵鿡 ϰ ġ ϰ ִ. Ű ΰ ֿ 迡 ǥϰ ִ. ̷ ߰ ؼ ״ ޾Ƶ鿩 ȴٰ Ѵ. ׵ ޽ о , , Ǵ ȭ ƴ϶ ̴. ̷ ڵ Ϲ ̴. ؼϴ Philo Judaeus ұ޵ȴ. ŵ鿡 Ϲ ͹ ٴ 罺(Epicurus, 342-270) öڰ ̹ ö м ǽߴ. ó ٺ âڵ öڵ о Ѵٰ 䱸ϰ ִ. ׵ Ϲݴ߿ ޾Ƶ鿩 ʴ ؼ , ö  ͵ ϰ ִ.

âа ġ

ö ԰ Ʋ 󰡵̳ ó â ȣڵ ̱ б ׵ â ľ Ѵٰ ķ ؿԴ. ׵ ϳ ĭ罺 ֿ װ â б ġ ϴ ׾. (1968 ĭ罺 ȭ ġ ҹ̾.) ׷ 1981 ǻ â ̹Ƿ ̶ ǰ ȴ.(McLean v. Arkansas). ֳ 1987 (Edwards v. Aguillard) . 1994 Tangipahoa б ״. Ѵٴ Ѹ ϰ ־ ȭ ĥ ū Ҹ ⼱(disclaimer) 䱸ߴ. å 1999 5 ȸ Ǿ. âڵ õ ٸ 1994⿡ â ϴ John Peloza õߴ. ״ бο ȭ̶ ġ ߴٰ Ҽ ɾ. ״ Ҽۿ 9 ȸ 'ȭ ƴϴ' ǰߴ. ؾ 1990 7 ȸ бδ â Ƿ ̰ ġ ؾ Ѵٰ ǰ ȴ. (Webster v. New Lenox School District). ڵ鵵 ̷ ǰ ߴ. ׵ б â ġ ٸ ܺ δ νߴ.

âڵ ǿ ȭ Űų ȭа â ġ Ϸ ׵ .  ׷ ġ Ȱ âڵ ʾҴ. ׵ ٲپ. âڵ б  ȭ ġ ϶ ݷߴ. б Ǹ ִ. âڵ б  Եȴٸ ˿ Ҵ. ( : ̾߱ âڵ鵵 𸣴 ſ ̾߱ε, ׵ б  ؼ ȭ ϵ å ϴ Դϴ. ǻ ƹ å ־ å ϴ б Ƿ ȭ ۿ Ǿϴ.  ϰ ĭ罺 Դϴ.)

˶ٸ ȭ " ̷ ڵ ü ϱ ؼ ̷̴...ƹ ó Ÿ . ׷Ƿ ź  嵵 ƴ ̷ ޾Ƶ鿩 Ѵ." ִ. ˶ٸ ħ Ͼ ׿ٴ Ǿ ƹ Ƿ, ̷ ȹۿ ̴. ˶ٸִ л ʹ ûؼ ׵ ⸸ϰ Ѵٴ Ѵٰ ϰ ִ .

1999 8 ĭ罺 ȸ(Kansas State Board of Education) ȭа ̷ ߴ. 10 ̷ ȸ 6:4 ǥ ߴ. ĭ罺 ȸ ȭа ̷ ġ ƴ϶ ܼ 迡 ̰Ϳ ϰ ̴. ȭ ̰ â Board Member Steve Abrams  ȭڵ £ ¸ ȯȣߴ. âڵ ׵ ̵ ׵ ٸ Ư â ϱ⸦ ϰ ִ. ׵ ̵ Ǵ ̳ ȭ ϱ ٶ ʴ´. ֳϸ װ ʴ´ٴ ɼ ֱ ̴. ̵ ̷е ó ٸ ̷а ʴ´. â âߴٴ ϰ ִ. ų ̴  ִٴ ܳ ʴ´. ̰ б ٸ ̴ ̶ ʿ ̶ ִ. ̵ ƾ ϰų Ȥ ȭ̳ ̷ó ߸ Ѵ.

ȭп

âڵ ȭ ϴ ˿ϴ ÿ âڵ ۾ ˿ ִٰ ߴ. ̷ º â Jerry Bergman "( â⿡ʹ ޸) ȭ ϴٰ ģ" ϰ ߴ. ó âڵ ȭ ü ϴ ߱ ʴ´. (See Revolution Against Evolution) ׵ ϴ ϳ , ˴ ʰ, ' ʴ' ̷е ȭ̳ ̷ ġ ̶ ϴ ̴. Answers in Genesis Marc Loovy ĭ罺 ǥ ſ ߿ ̾ װ Ʒ ̶ Ѵ. 

б л ȭ ̸, ڻ 깰̶ ... ̰ ٴ ⵵ ϰ, ̷ δ , ׸ ڻ쿡 ̸ Ѵ.

忡 ٰŰ ̰ ϴ ٰſ ϱ ̴. ׵ ų ׵ ź ó Ѵ. Mr. Loovy Christian Identity (Buford Furrow Jr.) the World Church of the Creator (Benjamin Nathaniel Smith), Ȥ Erich Rudolph, Ǵ Operation Rescue (Randal Terry) ٸ ϴ ׷ ° ߱ ñϴ. Ӵ Ʃ ŸϷ Ͻ [Leviticus 20:13] ڸ ΰ? (Sacramento Bee, "Expert: Racists often use Bible to justify attacks," by Gary Delsohn and Sam Stanton, Sept. 23, 1999.*) ̷ ι ׵ ߰ ִ. ׷ , , ڻ ִ Ͱ . б Ȥ ο뱸 츮 ƴ, ΰ ̴. Mr. Looy ȣҴ ؼ ޾ 鿩 忡 ʴ´. âڵ ׵ ġ ó Ѵ.

, и ȭڵ ־ ұϰ âڵ ȭ ȸȭ ϱ . ̷ ƺ ſ ϰ Ʒ Sacramentro Bee ʸ ִ. ڵ ׵ г븦 ȭϴµ οѴٴ 忡 ̴.

Ǹ ȭϴ ȭ ƴϴ....ȭ ڻ ġ (Ʋ ޾ҵ) η 躸 ̶ ǹ̸ Ѵ. ȭ ȭ  ڸ . ڵ ȭڵ ڵ鿡 . ׵  ָ ׷Ƿ ϴٰ Ѵ. (Scott Lively 10/3/99)

ڿÿ ǿ ϽѴٴ ȭ ̷ 𸣴 ϴ ̰ų, ˰ ؼ ص ȴٰ ϴ ̴.

ŷڵ âڵ ټ ΰ ָ ִ. âڵ鿡 ؼ ۵Ǵ ̷ ϴ , ϴ ó ϰ ߻ϴ ° ο ִ ð ġ ̴.

â ȭ

âڵ ο ´. ȭп ȭп £ ſ ̴. ׵ ȭ ȭ ߸ߴ. ׵ ȭ  ȭ Ͼ ڿ ޾Ƶ ʰ ϰ ־. ̵ ߿ Doug Sharp ȭ ؼ ̷ Ѵ.

ȭ ڿ ΰ ̸ ڿ Ϸ õ̴. ̷ ϴ ũîԴ ε װ ̰ ǵ â̽ ϴ ϱ ̴. 뿡  ̰ ǰϴ 鸸 ̰ Ͼ ٴ  ϴ 鿡 ϰ 鸱 ̴. .*

⵶ڵ ⵶ âڵ鿡 Ǵ ,  ٺ ⵶ ؼ ʴ´ٸ װ ϴ ̶ Ͻ̴. âڵ Ƹٿ ȭ  ڿ ִٰ Ѵ. ð ̰, Ȥ ̴ ̶ Ȥ ϴ 𸥴ٴ . ̰ ̰ ΰ?  װ ܸ鿡 ٸ װ ͵ Ƹٿ ׸ ƴϴ. ȵǴ ſ , а ƴ϶ ߰ ε ϰ ؾ Ѵٴ , ϴ 鿡Դ ſ ϴ ̴. ϴ 鿡 Ҽ ų Ӵ, â 縳 ϱ , а 縳Ű ߸̶ ϴ ͵ ſ ̴.

õ ׸ : God, pseudoscience and science.


б ڷ

reader comments

Cramer, J.A., General Evolution and the Second Law of Thermodynamics, in Origins and Shape, D. L. Willis, ed., (American Scientific Affiliation, Elgin, IL, 1978).

Dawkins, Richard. River Out of Eden: A Darwinian View of Life (1995, BasicBooks).

Dawkins, Richard. Climbing Mount Improbable (1996 Viking Press).

Edey, Maitland A. and Donald C. Johanson. Blueprints : Solving the Mystery of Evolution (Penguin, 1990).

Ferris, Timothy. The Whole Shebang : A State-Of-The-Universe's Report (Touchstone, 1998).

Gardner, Martin, Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1957), ch. 11.

Gould, Stephen Jay, "Darwin and Paley Meet the Invisible Hand," in Eight Little Piggies (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1993).

Gould, Stephen Jay, "Evolution as Fact and Theory," in Hen's Teeth and Horse's Toes (New York: W.W. Norton & Company,1983).

Gould, Stephen Jay, Ever Since Darwin, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1979).

Haught, John F. God After Darwin : A Theology of Evolution (Westview Press, 1999).

Haught, John F. Science and Religion : From Conflict to Conversation (Paulist Press, 1996).

Pennock, Robert T. Tower of Babel: The Evidence Against the New Creationism (M.I.T. Press, 1999).

Pilmer, Ian. Telling Lies for God: Reason vs. Creationism (Random House, New South Wales, Australia: 1994).

Schadewald, Robert. "Creationist Pseudoscience," in Science Confronts the Paranormal, edited by Kendrick Frazier. (Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books,1986).

Shermer, Michael. Why People Believe Weird Things: Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our Time, chs. 9-11,  (W H Freeman & Co.: 1997).

Copyright 1998
Robert Todd Carroll

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