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Robert Todd Carroll

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biorhythms, ̿

̿ ̺ ̷ Ѱ ̰ 츮 ϻ Ȱ, ϴ ڵ  뿡 ؼ ޴´ٴ ̴. ̿ũθƮ 뼺̳ circadian Ŭ̳ ð迡 ؼ ϴ ̴. (ƾ circa dia Ϸ ǹ̰ ִ.)

Circadian 츮 ҿ ϰ ִ. ̰ ϰ ִ. ̿ ü ƴϴ. ̿ Ŭ ƴϰ, ε Ǵ ͵ ƴϴ. ̷ Ǿ, װ ϴ ϳ ο ǥ ʾҴ. ̿ ϴ 40 ǥ Ǿ γ ־. (Hines, 1998) 134 ̷ ʾҴ. (Hines, 1998) ̷ ׽Ʈ ִ ͵̰ ǸǾ. ׷ , ̿ ̷̶̺ ϰ Ҹ ִٴ Ͻϰ ִٰ ϰ ִ. ׷ ׽Ʈ ִ ̷ ڵ е ݴ Ű ־ ̷ ϰ ִ. ׷Ƿ ̷ ̶̺ ִ. , ̷ ̷ ڵ ׵ ൿ Ǹ ִ ͵ ٴ ְ ִ. ׷鼭 ׵ ڽŵ ̷ ̶ Ѵ.

̿ ̷ ٴ (numerology), (testimonials) ȿ(Forer effect), ߸ü ҵ, ϰ ִ. ̷ 19 ǻ, ׸ ׹Ʈ ̵ ģ1 ö̽ Ѵ. ö̽ װ  ̾Ƴ 23 28 Ȥ ǥ ִٴ Ϳ ŷߴ.2 28 ֱ ġѴ. ׷Ƿ 23 28 Ѵٰ Ȯϰ Ǿ. ״ 28 ֱ⸦ "" Ⱓ̶ ϰ 23 ֱ⸦ ""Ⱓ̶ ҷ. 1904 ö̽ , 񿣳 Dr. Hermann Swobada ׵ Ⱓ(period) ߰ߴٰ ߴ. 1920 Ķ л mind ֱ θ 33 Ⱓ ϳ ߰ߴ. ̷ 1970 (" ΰ? ̿ ֱ⸦ ϴ  ִ°?") Ʋ ("̿-personal science") ؼ θ Ǿ. ̵ å δ Ŵ ϳ ʴ´. å, ȭ̴. ׷ Ⱓ ⼭ ֱ ٲ ǰ, ü, , ֱ ˷ ȴ. "" Ⱓ ֱ ٲ ȰͻӸ ƴ϶ 23ϰ 28 ü ֱ⸦ ̴. డ ٸ ȣ Ư¡ ٸ Ư¡ ֱ⸦ ̶ 𸥴.

ο ֱⰡ ֱٿ ߰Ǿ. װ 38 intuitional ֱ, 43 ֱ aesthetic ֱ, ׸ 53 ̴ֱ. ٸ 3 ⺻ ֱ ο ֱⰡ ִٰ Ѵ. passion ֱ üֱ ֱ⸦ ģ ̰, wisdom ֱ ֱ ֱ⸦ ģ ̴. mastery ֱ ֱ üֱⰡ ̴.

ֱⰡ ƹ Ƶ ̴. װ  ɱ ϴ ̴.

    Ϲ ϸ, ֱ⿡ װ αٿ ִٴ ̴. ֱ⿡ κп ִٸ ǰ ȣ ִٴ ǹѴ. ׷ Ʒʿ ִٴ ִ Ѵٴ ǹ̰ ƴ϶ ϱⰡ ٴ ǹѴ. ࿡ ŵ ֱⰡ ְ ϶ [Facade]

̷п , ź  ̿ zero Ѵ. ¾ ˸, ƿ ؼ Ư ̿ ˾Ƴ ִ. Ʒ ׸ ¾ 4ϵǴ Ʊ ̴̿.

Biorhythm chart for a 4-day-old born on 7/20/98

߰ zero ̴. zero positive ϰ ׺ Ʒ negative Ѵ. ֱ ó 1/4 ̰ ״ 1/2 ̰ ٽ ٴڿ 1/4 ִ. ̷ ֱ ӵȴ. 58 ϰ 66̸, ٽ ü, , ֱ 3 ȴ. ׳ ο ź Ǵ ̴.

̷п , δ ֱⰡ ġ κ ̰ ñ⿣ ų Ȥ ڰ ִ. ""̶ ֱⰡ ε ̷  ϴ ſ . Ͽ ɼ ٰ ȴ. ̷ ϴ. ׸ ̷ Ǹ Ǿ. ׸  ֱ ϴ ȦϿ zero ʴ´. ׷Ƿ ϴµ ߸ϱⰡ . ̿ ϴ 忡 ϸ ؼ 60% Ͼٴ ̴. 꿡 ϸ 22% ̴. ̶, 쿬 Ƿ ̿뿡 ȭ ̴. , ̿ ϴ յڸ Ϸ Ѵ. ׷Ƿ ٽ Ȯ ϸ " 60% شϴ 60% Ͼ" ִ. (Hines)

¶ , ̷п , ̸ ˾Ƽ ϰ ̴. ȴٸ, ̱ ؼ ֱⰡ ̳ negative ; ̴. , ġ ؼ ڰ, ǰؾ ϰ, Ծ ϰ, θ ؾ Ѵ. ֱⰡ 簡 ִ. ٸ δ Ÿ ޸ Ѵٸ üֱⰡ ̸ ϶, Ʒؾ ϰ, Ծ ϰ, ޽ ؾ ϰ, ǰؾ ϴ .. غؾ Ѵ. ü ֱⰡ ̰ .

̷(3ֱ) ϸ, 3 Ͽ ִ ̴. 2 Ͽ ִ ̴. ϴ ٿ 3 ֱ Ƿ ſ ϴ. ڰ ƴ϶ ̷ ´ ƴ Ǵ ִ. , ü ֱ 23 ̹Ƿ 11.5 üֱ ´´. ׷Ƿ 帶 Ȯ 1/11.5̴. κ 帶 ϴ ׳ ̶ Ϳ ̴. ̷ 鿡Լ 帶 ȯڵ Ͽ Ͼ 찡 9%(1/11) Ѵ ƴ Ȯ ̴. ׷ ̿ ϴ Ŭũ ̺̳ ٸ Ͽ 帶 ٰŷ Ѵ. 󿡴 ų 帶 Ѵ. ߿ 1/11 Ͽ 帶 ° ȴ. ׷Ƿ üֱⰡ Ͽ 帶 ߰ ִ. ȯȣ ʿ .

Ŭũ ̺ ̾߱ ȭ ո ̶ ̿ ϴ յڷ Ϸ羿 Ѵٴ ˰ Ǹ ƿ ڰ ̴. 23 6 ̴ (26% ). ׷Ƿ 氡 1/4 üֱⰡ Ͽִ ̴. ȭ ϴ ϻ̴. ǹִ ϰ 帶ȯڸ ϴ ̴. ׵߿ Ͽ 1/4 Ѵ´ٸ װ ̴.

̷п Ǵٸ ׽Ʈ ̷ 󸶳 ȮѰ ̱ ؼ íƮ ׸ װ ڽ ϰ ̴. Susan St. James ̿뿡 ڴ TV  ̿ 󸶳 ´ ߴ. ׳ ֱⰡ Ʒʿ ִٸ ׳ ſ Ҿϰ ü ֱⰡ ö ִٸ ׳ ׳ ſ ٰ ߴ. ֱⰡ ٴڿ ִ ƹ ͵ ٰ ߴ. ̰ self-fulfilling prophecy, ̸ Ͻÿ ְ (subjective validation) ͻ̴. ̶ θ ̰ ƴϴ.

̿ ϴ ̷ ְ 󸶳 ǹ ϱ ؼ ӽ ڽŰ 񼭸 ؼ ̿ ǻͻ ٿ ̿ íƮ Źߴ. α׷ ûڰ 迡 ϰ Ǿ. ׳ ڽ íƮ 2ް íƮ ׸ Ȯ ǥϿ. ׳ íƮ ڽ ϱ⿣ 90% ̻ Ȯϴٰ ߴ. ׷ ʾҴ ׳࿡ ڽ íƮ ¾. ״ ̰ Ǽٰ ߴ. ׳ ׳ ϱ⸦ ٽ ׳ ¥ íƮ ߾ ߴ. ׳ ̹ Ȯߴٰ ߴ. ׷ ̹ ׳డ íƮ. ̷ retrofitting ̺(pseudosciences) , ʰ ̿ Ϳ Ϲ Ÿ. ǻ ְ 迡 íƮ ʰ ؼ Ÿ. Ӽ ̿ Ʋٴ ϱ ƴ϶ , ʰ, ̿ ϴ Ȧϴ ְ ̾.

̿ װ ׽Ʈϴ ־ ̿ ϴµ ߱ ̴̺. ׷ ڵ ̷ ϴ źѴ. ̷ ڵ ӽù (ad hoc hypotheses ) ̿ؼ ̿ ϴ ŵ Ϸ Ѵ. ְ ϴ arrhythmic ̶ з̴. ̿ ʴ arrhythmic ̶ ҷ ִ. ٸ ӽù õǼ ״ üֱⰡ Ǹ ھ̰ ¾ ֱⰡ ھ̰ ¾ 90% ̻ Ȯϴٰ ߴ. W.S.Bainbridge ϸ ̷ ߷ 50/50 ̾ . ϵ ٸ . ̿ ؼ ̿ ̷ ڵ Bainbridge Ʋ Ƹ ̵ ߰¸ ڰ ԵǾ ̶ ̴.

ȭ ̷п ̿ ϴ ̷ ٲ۴. θ ˷ ̷ ֱ ְ ϵ ̶ Ѵ. ̷ ڵ 1972 øȿ 7 ݸ޴ Mark Spitz(2/10/50 ) ʸ οѴ. 9 5Ͽ ֱ üֱⰡ Ϳ ָ϶. ̳ л Ͼ ̴. 쿬̶ ϴ°? ̰ ũδϽƼ(synchronicity) ӿ ǽ δ. ñ ߿ ֱ ٴ ġ ־. ׵ ü Ǹ ´ٰ ʴ°?  ϴµ صǴ ɰ ϰ Ȱ̴. ̷ װ ٴ ̴. į 鵵(Occam's razor) ϰ Ǹ ̿ ٸ ̿ ޾Ƶ Ѵ.

Biorhythm chart for Mark Spitz (9/5/72)

׷ 轼 ߱ 翡 ̰ 1946 5 18 źϿ, 1977 10 18 ִ Ѵ. LA Ͽ 3 ӵǴ 3 Ȩ ļ ø ϴµ Ǿ. 轼 ֱ ֱⰡ Ʒʿ ־ ׳ ̾.

Biorhythm chart for Reggie Jackson (10/18/77)

Russ Streiffert Ҵ. " ϸ ׷ ڷῡ ִ° ٴ  Ǵ° ߿ϴ. ̰ ݴ밡 Ǵ ̴. ؼ, ֱⰡ ö󰡴 ϴ ̸ܰ Ǵ ܰ ߰ ̸ ̴. ̸ DZ⺸ٴ ȴ. ׷ 轼 ɷ Ǵ ñ̸ 10 18Ͽ Ǵ ̾. ̰ ֱⰡ ⿩Ѵٴ Ŵ , ̰ ʴ´ٴ Ͱ 谡 ִٴ ̴. " Mr. Streiffert ؼ ο ʾҴ.

׷Ƿ ̷а ݵǴ ڷᰡ 츮 ο ؼ Ϸ Ѵ. ֱⰡ ƴϾ. ״ " Ǵ ̰ ֱⰡ Ǿ." 츮 츮 ֱⰡ ö ֱⰡ ̶ Ϸ Ѵ. ̷ ̰ , ֱⰡ Ϳ , Ȥ Ǵ° Ǵ° , ƴϸ, ̿ ִ ñ, ƴϳĿ , ֱ Ʒʿ ־ ְ, ֱ ʿ ־ ִٴ ̴. ̷ ݷ . ׷Ƿ ̰ , ̷ ϴµ ġ ̷ . ̰ ſ ̰Ϳ ݴϴ ̰ ڷᰡ ޾Ƶ ʾұ ̶̺ ҷ ̵ 鼭 ̶ ϱ ̶̺ ҷ Ѵ. ũ , ̿ ϴ ͺ Ǹ ̷ 鿡 ݵ ұϰ, ̵ ̿ ¥ ִ.


Notes

1 Freud's letters to Fliess were preserved, much to Freud's dismay. They were first published in English as Origins of Psychoanalysis: Letters to Wilhelm Fliess Drafts and Notes, 1887-1902. Edited by Marie Bonaparte, Anna Freud and Ernst Kris, translation by Eric Mosbacher and James Strachey (London: Imago Pub. Co., 1954). A more recent translation by Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson is available: The Complete Letters of Sigmund Freud to Wilhelm Fliess, 1887-1904 (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1985). Fliess's masterpiece is entitled The Rhythm of Life: Foundations of an Exact Biology (Leipzig: 1906). There is a discussion of Freud, Fleiss and biorhythms in Frank Sulloway's Freud: Biologist of Mind (Cambridge, Mass:; Harvard University Press, 1993).

2 How did Fliess come up with his theory about the magic of the numbers 23 and 28?   Martin Gardner writes:

Fliess's basic formula can be written 23x + 28y, where x and y are positive or negative integers. On almost every page Fliess fits this formula to natural phenomena, ranging from the cell to the solar system....He did not realize that if any two positive integers that have no common divisor are substituted for 23 and 28 in his basic formula, it is possible to express any positive integer whatever. Little wonder that the formula could be so readily fitted to natural phenomena! [Gardner pp. 134-135]


б ڷ

Gardner, Martin. Science: Good, Bad and Bogus (Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1981), ch. 11, "Fliess, Freud, and Biorhythm."

Hines, Terence M. "Comprehensive Review of Biorhythm Theory," Psychological Reports, 1998, 83, 19-64.

Hines, Terence. "Biorhythm Theory: A Critical Review," in Paranormal Borderlands of Science,  ed.  Kendrick Frazier (Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1991).

Hines, Terence. Pseudoscience and the Paranormal: A Critical Examination of the Evidence (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1990).

Randi, James. Flim-Flam! (Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books,1988), ch. 8, "The Great Fliess Fleece."

Copyright 1998
Robert Todd Carroll

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