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Robert Todd Carroll

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appeal to authority, ȣ

ȣҴ о߿ ؼ ġ ִ ó ο Ǵ ǹѴ. ϸ鼭 νŸ ̶ ȣ̴. ׷ νŸ 񿴴ٰ ϴ Ѵٴ 忡 ŷμ νŸ ٰŷ ͵ ȣ̴. ֳϸ ü ִ ̱ ̴. 鿡 ؼ ǰ ġ ̰ ϱ⵵ ƿ Ѵ. ų ŷν ƴ ó οϴ Ȥ ص о߶ ϸ ׿ ϴ ų Ǵٴ ñ⿡ ͵̴.

ϰ ϴ genetic fallacy Ѱ, genetic  ų信 ؼ װ ϰų ݴϴ Ű ƴ ǴϷ õ Ѵ.

ϴ ϳ ȣϴ ƴ϶  ϰ ִ οϴ ̴. ִٰ ص, о߰ ٸٴ, ̾ , ϴ ϴ ƴϴ. ɷ ִ ִ. 忡 ϸ鼭 Ѵٸ ݴ 嵵 ִ.  ų , ̼ ̼ ޾Ƶ̴ ̳ źϴ ؾ Ѵ.

Ǵϱ о߿ ؼ οϴ ߸ ƴϴ. ׷ 쿡 ڰ ϴ ڱ о ̾ ϰ, Ϲ ٸ 忡 ݴϿ ִ ƴϾ Ѵ. , κ ڵ ϴ ϴ ڵ ϴ ո̴. Ƹ ڰ װ Ǵٰ ϴ װ ϴ ŵ ֱ ̴. , ̷ 嵵 Ǹ ִ.  嵵 ٸ ϴ ٴ ٰŷ ٴ ϴ.

б ڷ

Browne, M. Neil & Stuart M. Keeley. Asking the Right Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking (Prentice Hall, 1997).

Carroll, Robert Todd. Becoming a Critical Thinker - A Guide for the New Millennium (Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing, 2000).

Damer. T. Edward. Attacking Faulty Reasoning: A Practical Guide to Fallacy-Free Arguments 4th edition (Wadsworth Pub Co, 2001).

Kahane, Howard. Logic and Contemporary Rhetoric: The Use of Reason in Everyday Life, 8th edition (Wadsworth, 1997).

Moore, Brooke Noel & Richard Parker. Critical Thinking 6th edition (Mayfield Publishing Company, 2000).

Copyright 1998
Robert Todd Carroll

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Last updated 10/14/98

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