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Smith, George H. Atheism : the Case Against God (Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1979).

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Atheism*, ŷ ()

ŷ 縦 ʴ ǵȴ. ̷ ŷ 翡 źϴ Ͱ õȴ.

׷, 󿡴 , ̷ 밳 ȭ Ȥ 뿡 ̱ , ŷ Ư Īϴ  ܾ δ ƹ͵ Ű ٴ ǵǾ ̴. ׷ ̸ ŵ ϵ ŭ ٸ ŷ ִ.

Ϻ ŷڵ ŵ Ѵٴ ˰ ׵ Ѵٴ ź ִ. ̷ ߹ŷ (polyatheist) Ҹ ̴. ׷ κ ڱ ڽ ŷڶ ϸ װ װ 縦 ʴ´ٴ ǹ ̴. , -׸-̽(Judeo-Christian-Islamic God, JCIG) ϴ ȭӿ ϴ ŷڴ, ϰ ̸ ΰݽ âڸ ϴ ּ ̴. ݸ鿡, JCIG Ѵٰ ϴ ̷ ŷ̶ ̴. , dz(Baruch de Spinoza, 1632-1677), ڿ(Nature) ϸ繫 Ӽ(attributes) ü(substance) ߴ. ΰ ⵶ε װ ϴ(-׸-̽ ) ִٴ ź߱ ŷڶ Ѵ. 丶 ȩ( Thomas Hobbes, 1588-1679) ŷڷ ֵǴµ װ װ ü ̸ ׷Ƿ ŵ ᱹ ̾ ʴٰ Ͼ ̾. dzڳ ȩ ڽ ŷڶ θ ʾҴ.

ڽ ŷڶ θ ʾ ״ ׸ θ źߴ. ״ Ϻϴٰ ߴ. ׷Ƿ, ׵ ŵ ÿ, ȣ Ȥ ٸ ҿ . ׵ ŵ ΰ ִ. Ϻ ΰ ൿ  Ϳ ع ƾ Ѵ. ׷Ƿ, 츮 ְų Ѵٴ ͹ ̴. Ϻϰ DZ ؼ ʾƾ Ѵ. ׷Ƿ, Ϻ̶ ŵ ΰ ൿ ؾ Ѵٴ 䱸Ѵ. Ϻδ ׸ (God) źѴ. Ϻ 簡 ָ âѴٴ ڱ ̶ ̴.  Ϻ ǵ ְڴ°? âѴٴ ϴٴ ̸, Ϻ ǹѴ. ̷ ݴ 忡 ؼ 亯 ִٸ, ٸ ܳ. ϰ ׸ ϴٸ, ؼ ȵȴ. ׷Ƿ, ʾƼ ߰ų, ʾƼ ϳ ̴. ̷ 翡 ؼ ϴ и ƴϴ.

ٸ ⵶ ڵ鿡 ʼ ϴٴ DZ ⵶ źѴ(Rachels 1989). ٸ ž ϴ Ϳ ϹǷ źѴ. Ϻ ڵ ̼ 縦 Ϸ Ѵ. ׷, ̷ źϴ ŷ ƴϴ.

Ϻ ⵶ڵ ұڵ ŷڷ ϸ, ̰ dz, Ȥ ö ׵ ŷڶ ϴ Ͱ ̴. ׵ ϰ ΰ â źϴ źϴ ̶ Ѵ. ׷, -⵶-̽ źϴ źϴ ƴϴ. -⵶-̽ źϴ Կ ñ ̳ Ѵٴ źϴ ƴϴ. ̷ () ƴ϶ ()̸, ̿ ϰ Ǿ° ִ. -⵶-̽ źϴ ̳ ΰ̳ ؼ ѹ ʴ (divas) ȥ źϴ Ͱ ƴϴ.

, ŷڴ , 縦 ų, Ȥ ϳ ų, ߿ϴٰ Ǵ 'ź'̰ų, Ȥ '' ޾ٴ ϴ ƴϴ. ŷڵ ׵  縦 Ѵٴ ʴ´. ŷڵ ̷ ϴ γ ° ڿ ̶ ̴.

ŷ 󸶳 °? 2000 翡 8%  ȥ, ΰ , Ȥ µ ʴ´ٴ ߰ߴ. ٸ 17% Ȯ ߴ. ׷ α ̻ ׸ 90% ̻ ΰ , ׷ ⵶ ڵ鿡Լ ŷڷ ֵȴ.

 

õ ׸ : agnosticism, God, miracles and theism.


б ڷ

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Online Texts

Berman, David. ed. Atheism in Britain, 5 vols., (Bristol, UK: Thoemmes Press, 1996).

Freud, Sigmund. The Future of an Illusion (1927).

Johnson, B. C. The Atheist Debater's Handbook (Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1981).

Krueger, Douglas E. What Is Atheism? : A Short Introduction (Prometheus, 1998).

Martin, Michael. Atheism : a Philosophical Justification (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990).

Newberg, Andrew M.D., Eugene G. D'Aquili and Vince Rause. Why God Won't Go Away: Brain Science and the Biology of Belief (Ballantine Books, 2001).

Persinger, Michael. Neuropsychological Bases of God Beliefs (Praeger Pub Text., 1987).

Rachels, James. "God and Human Attitudes," in Religious Studies 7 (1971). Reprinted in Philosophy and the Human Condition, 2nd. ed. (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1989), pp. 509-518.

Russell, Bertrand Arthur. Why I Am Not a Christian, and Other Essays on Religion and Related Subjects (Simon & Schuster, 1977).

Smith, George H. Atheism : the Case Against God (Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1979).

Smith, Homer. Man and His Gods, foreword by Albert Einstein (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1952).

Copyright 1998
Robert Todd Carroll

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