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Robert Todd Carroll

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Treatment of the Common Cold with Unrefined Echinacea - A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

Wasting Big Bucks On Alternative Medicine Leon Jaroff, Time

Alternative medicines may pose risk U.N. warns herbal, spiritual remedies could be misused

Consumer Group Labels White House Panel's Proposals "Irrational" and "Contrived" NCAHF News Release, March 28, 2002

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alternative health practices, ü

ʰ, ̸, , , ġ Ȥ Ŀ ǰ Ǵ ġ ü Ҹ. "ü" ̻ ǰϰ ݰ̴. Ƿ "ü"Ƿᰡ ִٰ ϸ, װ ݵ а ȿ ̴. ̹ "ü" Ҹ ̴. , ִ "ü" κ, "ü" ƴϴ. "ü" Ƿ ϴ 찡 , ¡ (complementary)̶ þ.( : ϴٰ traditional ǥϱ⵵ ̶ ܾ ︰ٰ Դϴ.)

ü Ż 150 ޷ ̴. κ ȸ, ü û ʾ, Ƹ޸ĭ ȸ ʴ, ̷ ȭϰ ִٴ Ÿ ִ. Ƹ޸ĭ ȸ, ĶϾ, ָ, ݷζ, ߽, Ÿֿ ħġ, , ̿ ǵ , ī̷ƽ, , , ڿ, ݻ, 䰡 Ư 300 Ʈũ غϰ ִ. , ȣ 赵 庴 ġῡ ܰ "ü"ǷḦ ̿ ߴ. ġ 縮信 ִ ̸ Ͻ ڻ, ̰Ϳ ä ̾Ʈ , ׸  ԵǾ ִ. , "ü" ο ִ ƴ϶ ߴ. ׵ Ͻ ڻ ó ȿ ִٰ ̴.

ǿ üб, ġ ϰ , ̰Ϳ ġῡ ̿Ѵٵ簡, ˷⿡ ȭ ȿ ϴ ͱ ԵǾ ִ. αִ "ü"̶ ϸ, Ƹ (ȭ)̳ ī̷ƽ, , ̴. "ü"翡 . ǿ, ü ׵ ̻ ž̳ ؼ ϰ ִ.

ٸ , ǽɽ ǰ ̳ ȯ ġ ġ ǰ ִ.   ǰ ָ ǥ ϰų ߸ ǥϰų Ѵ. FTC Һ ȣ Jodie Bernstein ̸ ǽ϶ ϰ ִ.

** پ ؼ ȿ ģٰ ϴ ǰ

** ڵ , ġ, ǰ, м Ȥ ó̶ ܾ Ѵ.

** λ dz ٰŰ .

** ڵ ο а Ȥ ϴ ڵ ǰ ϱ ִٰ Ѵ.

** پ ȭ ̴.

** ǰ ִ Ѱ̶

ϸ "̱ ⿣ ʹ , Ƹ ƴ ̴."

DAILY MAIL (London)
ü (12 21, 1998).

" ϴ , ħ, ī̷ƽ ؼ ߱Ǿٰ 翡 ϴ. B , Űջ, ˷ ͵ Ϲǿ ؼ а  ڵ鿡 Ǿϴ. ϰ ǰų Ȥ ü ؼ ߽ϴ.

686 Ϲǻ 10 1 п ؼ ˹ߵ ɰ ۿ ߽ϴ. ׸ ׿ 1/3 ġ ɰ ۿ ߽ϴ. International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine ɰ ۿ Ϲ ī̷ƽ üڳ, ô ġῡ ô Űջ, ô й ȭ մϴ. ħ ؼ 2 B Ǿ, ħ η 쿡 ˷ ˹߽, ָ ɰ ȯ ް ߽ϴ.

ּ 1ǿ, ־ ϰ , װ, õȯڵ ߴ϶ ġḦ ޾ƾ߸ ߽ϴ.

"ü"ǰ ׷ θ °?

ױ۷ (The New England Journal of Medicine) 1993 1ȣ, ̱ 3 1 ۳⵿ȿ  ǷḦ ޾Ҵٴ Ͽ. "ü ̷ θ ִ°?  ִ.

 

  1. ๰ ü Ե . ๰ ۿ뿡 ǷḦ ָϴ ǰ ִ. ü ̷ η ó ʱ , ŷ ̴. Դٰ Ƿ ȯڿ ظ ֱ⵵ Ѵ. ü ó 輺 , ظ ִ .
  2. Ȯ , ܰǰ ߸ؼ ٸ ߶ , ߸Ǿ κ , Ȥ 볪 缱 ġ ȯڰ ׾ Ű澲 ȴ. ๰ п ǰϰ Ȱϰ ִ 鸸 ȯڰ ִ . , ϻΡ ȯڰ װų ๰ ۿ ظ ϰų ų ȣ簡 "ںο" ڰ Ǿ ϴ ʸ ̴.

    ๰ ġᳪ Կ̳ ̷ ɰ ǽ , ٰŰ ƴϴ. Ƿ ǿ ظ ִ 찡 ,  Ϻδ ߸ ῡ ͵ , Ϻδ ̱ ๰̳ Ұ Ұϰ ͵ ִ. ̷ ǿ ԵDZ , ܰdz ȯڰ ؼ ڼϰ ϴ 찡 .  Ƿῡ ŷڴ "Ƿ " ߵǰ ִ ̴.

    ̷ "Ƿ" ΰ? ƴ , Ը . 1991, 忡 (Ϲ Ƿ The Harvard Medical Practice Study), ȯ 4% ظ Ծ ߿ 14% Ƹ ط ߴٴ ߰ߴ. ǻ þ L. ͸ ܻ, ̱ ų 180,000 Ƿ ڿ Ƿ ϰ ִٰ ϰ ִ. ״ ȿ ؼ, "̰ 3 ߶ 1 ɷ Ͼ ִ Ͱ ̴." ߴ. ("Truth about human error in hospitals," by Abigail Trafford, editor of the Washington Post's health section, printed in the Sacramento Bee, March 21, 1995, p. B7. )

    , "ü" ظ 輺, ๰ , 赵 ϴ Ƿ ظ ޴ 輺 ϸ ſ ۴. ̰ ġ簡, ġῡ ϴ ƴϱ δ. ׵ óϴ δ  Ե ȿ . ġ簡 ȯڸ ̴ ̴. "ü"ġ ϴ ƴϰ 輺 Ϲ ʰ ̴. ȯڿ ظ ִ ϴ Ϳ ϴ ƴ϶ ׵ ǰ ų ְų ׵ ִ Ⱓ ÷ ִ ġ(๰ Ȥ ) ϰ ϱ ̴.

    Ƿῡ 輺 ٰ ص -  ġ - װ ġḦ źϴ ո ̴. ո ̶, 索 ɷ ๰ п ư ְ, п ġ ̳ ɸ ʰ ִ 鸸 ִٴ ̴. п ְų,  Ȥ ๰ 2 Ƿ ġ п ִ 鸸̳ ִٴ 츮 .

    Ƿ ڿ ġ 輺 ո Ƿڵ鿡 ū å ϴ ̴.

    ո ȯڶ ǻ簡 󸶳 ó ̰ų ̵ Ϸ ص ǻ ͽ ̴. ( ģ Ѹ, п 80 , ׳ ǻ翡, M.D. (ǻ) "medical divinity ( )" ̶ Ѵ.) 츮 츮 óǴ ๰ ؼ, ˾Ƶξ ̴. ڽſ ġῡ ؾ ϸ ̰ Ͽ ǹ ؼؾ Ѵٴ ǹѴ.  츮, ȣ簡 Ű ϴ ̸ ǻ ó ̶ ʿ ̴. ( " ?" ⸸ ϸ ȴ. óǾ ƴ ˾ƾ Ѵ. 츮 2, 3 ãƺ Ѵ. ̰ ڽ ̾߱⸦ ִ ٸ ǻ縦 ã´ٴ ǹϴ ƴϴ. ̰ 縦 ǹϴ ̴. ڽ ó濡 ؼ å о. 츮 ΰ Ǽ ְ ҿ ̹Ƿ ΰ ŷؼ 輺 . 츮 츮 ڽſ ؼ å ϰ ϸ 츮 輺 ִ. Ƿ ڿ ġḦ ñ ŷڰ ʿϴ. ׷ ͽ ʿ . ܰ ϰų ų ʿ 𸥴. , ϴ ܰǰ 㳶 ϴ ϰ ִ ƴ Ȯ ʿ䰡 ִ ̴. ҳ ؾ߸ ǰ ٸ ũ " ٸ ƴմϴ." ۾ ڸ . 츮 Ӹ ޾ƾ Ѵ. װͺٴ װ ͽ ʾҴٴ ޾ƾ ϴ ̴.  

  3. Ƿῡ, ̳ ̴ ãƳ 찡 ִ. ̰ ü ̴. ׷, Ƿῡ, ġᰡ ʴ 쿡 ȯڿ 밨 Ȱ ʴ´. "ü", Ȳ, ȯڰ ݷ ִ.  

  4. Ƿῡ, ߰ߵǾ, ȿ ġ 찡 ִ. ü , Ƿᰡ ϰ Ȯ ġ 쿡, ִ. ڷ ۱ Ŀ, Ͽ ɷ Ž ź, ȭп źߴ. Ʈ ̺񽺴, Ž ڻ 1 13ð ģ Ļ(äҿ 꽺) , , ׸ Ŀǰ (1 4ȸ) . ̺ Ӵϴ Ͽ 2 ɷ, ȭп ޾Ҵ. ̺񽺴 ȭп 輺 ˰ ־. ׳ ̷ ġ ܷ̿ ٰ ϴ ޾Ƶ ʾҴ. ̺񽺰 ȭп Ž ȿ ٴ ߴ. ׳ 4 1999 3 20 39 ̷ 2 ϰ ο Ŀ ߴ. ȭп ޾Ҵٸ ׳ ? Ƹ ׷ ̴. ׳డ Ȯ ۾ ִ. п ϴ ɼ ּ ¥ ̴. Ž ؼ ־ ö ̴.

  5. ü "ڿ" ġ ̿ϰ ִ. , ΰ (Ǿǰ ) õ ʿ ϴٰ ϰ ִ. õ̱ , ݵ ϴٵ簡 ϰų ǰ ǹϴ ƴϴ. ڿ迡 ϰ Ѵ. õ, ǰ̳ Ȱ ־ ƹ ȿ ͵ ִ. 

  6. ü κ, ǷẸ ϴ. ǰ (Health Maintenance Organizations) ȸ ڿԡü ŷ ġ Ѵ. ̵, ü α ä ׵鿡 ̶ ݰ Ǿ. ü ü ġḦ ϴµ ϴ ͼ. ׷ κ "ü" "ü" ƴϴ. ̰͵ Ƿ ġ ȿ ͵̴. δٴ ߿ ƴϴ.

  7. ü κ, ο 㰡 Ǿ ִ. δ "ü" 㰡ְ ϱ⵵ , Ƿ κ  "ü"縦 ȣϱ⵵ Ѵ. , ī̷ƽ ̱ǻȸ Ҽۿ , 1987⿡ ¼Ҹ ŵΰ ִ. ǼҴ ̱ ǻȸ "ī̷ƽ ġ ϴ " ߴ ̴. ηκ 㸦 ޾ ޾ ȣǾ ִٴ ü ȿ ִٰ ϰ ȴ. κ 㰡 ̵κ ȣϱ ̴.. 

  8. ǻ ϰ Ѵ. "ü" "Ϸġ, ȯ Ӱ ü ȥ ġϴ ̶ Ѵ. , ü 簡 âϴ, ̷ ɷ ̰ ̻ ῡ ŷ Ƿ ִ. ü ȯ , "ġ" ڽ ΰμ ְ, ڽ ִ ٰ ݸ鿡 ǻ " " ϴٰ Ѵ.

    ǻ, ū ̳ HMO ٹ, ڽ ǰ, õ ȯڸ Ѵ. ̰Ͱ ݴ, "ü" ̳ ̳ ҿ, Ҽ ȯڸ Ѵ. ߿ , Ƿ ġḦ 䱸ϴ , ׵ , ̻, . "ü" ã  ΰ̳ ŷ 찡 . , 索 к ̻縦 ãư Ƹ ǻ簡 Ȥ ̰ų ̻ ϴ ̴. ǻ簡 ϴ Ȥ ȥ ϴ ġʹ ϴ. ߿ ǻ İ ̴. ǻ簡 ģϰ ΰ̰ ġ ̶ ̴. "ü" , ΰ̰ ϸ 簡 ȵ ̴. ǻ̸, Ȥϰ ΰ̰ ص ؾ پٸ, ȯڴ ĥ ̴.

  9. и Ƿῡ ΰ ٸ İ κ ִٴ Ѵ. ̰͵ , ִ. ̻ ü迡 ǰϴ Ұ̰, , ߸̶ ʴ´. ׷Ƿ ̻ ü ѹ Ȯ ׵ڷδ װͿ ϰ ǰ ʴ´. Ǹ ȭ Ű , ̴ڰ Ǿ ڽ Ǹ Ȯϴ ̴. Ƿ ߸ ִٸ װ ߸̴. ȿ ų Ȥ źεȴ.
     
    ü ̻ ü ų̳ ϰ ġᰡ ߰ų ȿ 쿡 ӽù ̿Ѵ. Ƿῡ м ġ , ߸, , ׸ ߰ ִ. ߸ ġ ϴ Ǽ ΰ ؼ ȴ. Ϻ ̷ ſ ̴. ð ̷ ߸ ߰ߵǾ Ѷ ǥ Ǿִ ó浵 ٸ ġ üȴ. ϸ ̰ ȭ ̴. , ȫä, ݻ, , ġ ⺻ ȭ ̴. ġḦ ϴ 鵵  ̴. ſ "ü" ġ Ϲ θ  ִ ͵ ̴.
     
  10. "ü" ϰ ִ. "ü" ̿, ޹ħ ̵ θ ִ. ü Ϻδ ƴ϶ źѴ. ȿ Ÿ⵵ žӿ ϴ ϴϴ.

  11. ׷, "ü"ǰ ߱ϴ ̴ װ ȿ̶ ϱ ̴. , ׵ ġḦ ٰų, ǰٰų Ⱑ ٰ . "ü" "ȿ ִ" ϴ ̶ ǹ ̴. ü鿡Դ Ųٴ ׵ ġ̶ Ű ȴ. ׷ 쿡 ǰ´ ƹ͵ ʾƵ ȣǴ 찡 ִ.  ׷ ȣ ġḦ ̱ ġᰡ ȿ ִٰ ϰ ȴ. (the post hoc fallacy and the regressive fallacy). 쿡 ȿ ġ öú ȿ ʴ´.  쿡 Ƿ ġų ȣŰ ٴ ذ Ǵ 찡 ִ. ׸ ü ߱ ƴ϶ ǷḦ ߴ߱ 찡 ִ.  ( ߴ ʾҴ ٴ Ϳ ġ纸 ġ ġ ȣڿ ظ ̴: ġϸ鼭 Űų ߴ. ġ ƹ͵ ʾǷ ȯڴ ʾ ̵ ڽ ġ ۿ ؼ Ҵ.

    쿡 Ͽ Ƶ õߴ ü ȿ ִٰ Ѵ. , ġᰡ Ǿٴ 쵵 δ δ ġᰡ 쵵 . ó ߸ 쿡  ġᵵ δ ϾƵ Ѵ. ȯڵ "ȣ "̶ ġ ŷ ޾Ƶ鿩⵵ Ѵ. ׷ ġ ¿ ɸ ȿ ġ ִ. δ ȣǰ ־  ſ ִ. ݴ  δ ȭǾµ ȣȴٰ ִ.
  12. , "ü" ȣڵ и ʴ´.  ڸ޵ ý ߽ ƼľƳ ü ġ 鼭 , ġ ߴٴ ʾҴ. ׳ ׳ ƹ ġḦ ߱ ̶ ׳ ϰ ִ. ̷ ϰ ְų ӱ Լ Ÿ, ü ã Ϲ Ư¡̱⵵ ϴ.

See entries for the following "alternative" health practices:

õ ׸ : ad hoc hypothesis, Edgar Cayce, cold reading, communal reinforcement, confirmation bias, control study, Occam's razor,  the placebo effect, the post hoc fallacy, the regressive fallacy, selective thinking, self-deception, subjective validation, and testimonials and wishful thinking.


б ڷ

reader comments

   nA study by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore of 6,000 patients diagnosed with cancer found that one out of every 71 cases was misdiagnosed (a 1.4% error rate). See "Misdiagnosing Cancer" by John McKenzie, May 9, 2001, ABCNews.com.

further reading

Medical Suburban Myths (from the Suburban Myths Page)

Myth 2. Prescription drugs are one of the leading causes of death.

Myth 3. Most medical treatments have never been clinically tested.

Myth 19. Medical doctors typically know nothing about nutrition.

Myth 21. Faith healing works.*

Myth 22. Dr. Randolph Byrd scientifically proved that prayer can heal.

Myth 23. Even if Dr. Byrd failed, others have succeeded in proving scientifically that prayer heals.

Myth 25. Transplant organs carry personality traits which are transferred from donors to receivers.

Myth 31. Crimes, mental illness, suicides, and emergency room visits increase when there is a full moon.

Myth 43. Suicide increases over the holidays.

Myth 46. Switching to a low-tar cigarette will reduce one's chances of being exposed to the carcinogens in cigarette smoke.

Myth 47. Vaccination of children with the (MMR) vaccine to prevent measles,* mumps and rubella causes autism.*

reader comments

The Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine

Barrett, Stephen and William T. Jarvis. eds. The Health Robbers: A Close Look at Quackery in America, (Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1993).

Gardner, Martin. Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science(New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1957), ch. 16.

Gardner, Martin. "Water With Memory? The Dilution Affair," in The Hundredth Monkey, ed. Kendrick Frazier (Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1991), pp. 364-371.

Randi, James. The Faith Healers (Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books).

Raso, Jack. "Alternative" Healthcare: A Comprehensive Guide (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1994).

Raso, Jack. "Mystical Medical Alternativism," Skeptical Inquirer, Sept/Oct 1995.

Sampson, Wallace and Lewis Vaughn, editors. Science Meets Alternative Medicine: What the Evidence Says About Unconventional Treatments  (Prometheus Books, 2000).

copyright 2002
Robert Todd Carroll

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Last updated 01/09/03

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